ultramarinus – beyond the sea

Posts tagged “Victoria Harbour

BREAKING THE BARRIER, Island Eastern Corridor (東區走廊), Hong Kong

In Canada, there has long been a debate of tearing down the elevated Gardiner Expressway in Toronto waterfront. Maintaining the deteriorating and somewhat underused infrastructure has become a burden for the city. As the trend of urban sprawl reversed in recent two decades, land in downtown Toronto, especially along the waterfront of Lake Ontario, has become precious asset for the city. Since 1960’s, the Gardiner has been a prominent barrier that cut off the city from its waterfront. The uninviting wasteland underneath the expressway has prevented most pedestrians walking to the waterfront especially at night. Since 1990’s, studies have been made for replacing the expressway, such as turning it into a tunnel or an urban park like the Highline in New York. Despite all the studies and debates, most of the Gardiner Expressway still remains in Toronto waterfront today. On confronting an aging waterfront expressway that hinders urban development and pedestrian connection, Toronto wasn’t alone. Negative aspects of these waterfront expressway are quite universal: poor waterfront access, wasteland below the structure, discontinued harbourfront, undesirable air ventilation, unattractive streetscape, high maintenance cost, etc. Since 1990’s, a wave of waterfront revitalization projects and demolition of elevated expressways have sprung up across the globe. Double decker Embarcadero Freeway in San Francisco was torn down in 1991, and so did Rio de Janerio’s Perimetral Elevated Highway in 2014, and Seattle’s Alaskan Way Viaduct in 2019.

In Hong Kong, sections of elevated expressways flank the Victoria Harbour in Western Kowloon and Eastern Hong Kong Island. The idea of building an expressway in Eastern Hong Kong Island was brought out in 1968 to tackle the traffic problems of King’s Road. It wasn’t until 1980’s that an elevated expressway, namely Island Eastern Corridor (東區走廊), was erected between Causeway Bay at the centre of Hong Kong Island and Chai Wan (柴灣) at the eastern end. The expressway includes a viaduct along the harbour between Causeway Bay (銅鑼灣) and Quarry Bay (鰂魚涌), passing by North Point (北角) along the way. East of Quarry Bay, the expressway shifts slightly inland from the coast, leaving a strip of waterfront promenade between Quarry Bay and Shau Kei Wan (筲箕灣). Designating the waterfront for public enjoyment was never the top priority in the 1980’s. From Causeway Bay to Quarry Bay, there are only a few boat landings and viaduct pillar supports where the public can walk out to have a peek of the harbour. In 2008, the authority proposed to construct a waterfront promenade between Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter and Shau Kei Wan. In the past decade, stretches of waterfront promenades have been built to connect the harbourfront from Central to Causeway Bay, up to East Coast Park Precinct. East of Causeway Bay however, the waterfront promenades remain fragmented. After years of speculations, boardwalk constructions under the expressway have finally commenced in North Point. If the works can really deliver a continuous walkway below Island Eastern Corridor, then sooner or later we can walk along the north coast of Hong Kong Island all the way from Central Pier to Aldrich Bay Promenade (愛秩序灣海濱花園) in Shau Kei Wan, via a 9.5km pedestrian path. Then the barrier that separates the harbour from Eastern Hong Kong Island would finally be broken.

Today, about 6.8km of Gardiner Expressway in Toronto is still elevated from the ground. [2013]
The wasteland beneath Gardiner Expressway remains as a barrier between downtown Toronto and the waterfront. [2013]
In Hong Kong, the Island Eastern Corridor begins from Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter at its western end. [2020]
Together with Central-Wan Chai Bypass and Connaught Road West Flyover, Island Eastern Corridor serves as the main artery road on Hong Kong Island known as Route 4. [2020]
From Causeway Bay to Quarry Bay, Island Eastern Corridor is mainly a viaduct that runs along the waterfront of Victoria Harbour. From East Coast Park Precinct to City Garden (城市花園), construction work of a waterfront promenade is still ongoing. [2022]
The majority of Island Eastern Corridor in North Point was built over the water. [2021]
Built in 1984, the monolithic Provident Centre (和富中心) is a spectacle when driving on Island Eastern Corridor. Back then, the building code has little restrictions on the facade length. The continuous facade of Provident Centre has led to a negative impact on ventilation of the local neighborhood. [2014]
In North Point, people can still enjoy the harbour view below the elevated expressway. [2021]
At the end of Tong Shui Road (糖水道), North Point Public Pier has become a public harbourfront lookout for the neighborhood. [2020]
Only a handful of boats would use the pier. For most of the day, the wharf serves as a gathering node for the local community. [2020]
The public pier is particular popular at sunset. [2021]
Many would come to the pier to enjoy the sunset after work. [2021]
Liking it or not, Island Eastern Corridor is part of the waterfront scenery of Eastern Hong Kong. [2021]
At a bend of Hoi Yu Street, an unofficial lookout beneath Island Eastern Corridor is frequented by people who come for recreational fishing. [2020]
The local community even set up their own “footbridge” to reach the outermost pillar support of the expressway. [2021]
The lookout is popular throughout the day. [2016]
While most come for fishing, some would come to the lookout just to chill out by Victoria Harbour. [2020]
The lookout offer fine views of Kowloon East, including the famous Lion Rock (獅子山). [2020]
Kowloon Peak (飛鵝山) is the most dominated feature in Kowloon East. [2021]
The causal lookout has come to an end in recent months, as the space has been boarded off as a construction site for future’s boardwalk project. [2016]
Since the closure of the lookout, people have shifted to other waterfront parks to fish, where proper railing and fixed benches are provided. While the level of safety has improved, the sense of freedom is inevitable compromised in the new setting. [2017]

PRESENT & FUTURE OF TYPHOON SHELTER, Causeway Bay (銅鑼灣), Hong Kong

At the east end of Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter (銅鑼灣避風塘) sits one of the hottest attractions in recent months. Officially opened on 25 September 2021, East Coast Park Precinct is one of the several projects aiming to enhance the waterfront experience along Victoria Harbour. The main feature of the park is the 100m long breakwater that marks the eastern end of Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter. Unlike most harbourfront promenades in the city, the majority of this breakwater is handrail free to avoid interruption to the seaview. At its tip stands a cylindrical structure spiraling up two to three storey high. The strange looking tower is actually a vent shaft of the Central-Wanchai Bypass East, constantly bringing fresh air into the submerged tunnel. East of the breakwater, a harbourfront promenade may not be the biggest open space in the city, but it offers an inviting and safe space for skateboarders and roller-skaters to practice their tricks and socialize with each other. Unlike most parks in the city, there aren’t that many restrictions at this space, not a piece of lawn that cannot be stepped on, or planter edges tilted to prevent people sitting down, or signs prohibiting people to eat and drink. Although not a big park, at least East Coast Park Precinct is easily accessible and welcoming in design, drawing large crowds of visitors, either for the skyline views, or for the recreation spaces.

Compared to most big cities in the world, Hong Kong is particularly problematic on the issue of public space. Worse than residents of Tokyo, Singapore or Shanghai, a 2018 study shows that urban Hongkongers have only 2.7 sq.m of open space per person, which is slightly larger than a toilet cubicle. In comparison, New Yorkers enjoy over 10 sq.m of public space per capita. Furthermore, these open spaces are not evenly distributed across the city. For some of the most vibrant and busy districts, such as Mongkok and Causeway Bay, the number drops to 0.6 to 1 sq.m per person. Many studies around the world have shown that having access to open spaces can bring great health and social benefits to people. Perhaps there is great opportunity for Hong Kong to tackle the open space issue today. As many old godowns and piers along Victoria Harbour become obsolete, expanding the extent of public promenade along the harbour is definite a good move to enhance the well-being for everyone.

For some of the busiest districts in Hong Kong such as Causeway Bay, residents has only 0.6 to 1 sq.m of open space per person.
Adjacent to Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter, construction work is still ongoing at the newly opened East Coast Park Precinct. [2022]
At tip of the 100m breakwater stands the bullet shape vent shaft structure of the submerged Central-Wanchai Bypass East. [2022]
East Coast Park Precinct has instantly became a popular spot for sunset watching. [2022]
West of East Coast Park Precinct, the 300m+ breakwater separates Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter with Victoria Harbour. [2022]
Similar to Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter, the period from sunset to dusk is the most beautiful moment to visit East Coast Park Precinct. [2022]
On a clear day, East Coast Park Precinct offers an alternative location to appreciate the city’s skyline in comparison to the more common lookouts in Kowloon’s Tsim Sha Tsui. [2022]
As darkness falls upon, the LED signs and facade lighting of the distant skyline appears to be more vivid and outstanding. [2022]
Beyond the vent shaft structure stands a small light tower at the tip of the breakwater. [2022]
The breakwater tip allows visitors to take in the urban scenery of both sides of the harbour. [2022]
Compared to the commercial skyline of Wan Chai and Central in a distance, the lights from Tin Hau and Tai Hang beyond Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter is much more subtle and coherent. [2022]
Composed of plastic bottle caps of different colours, the sunshade near the vent shaft structure echoes well with the undulating water. [2022]
Though not for everyone’s taste, the vent shaft structure has become a unique new feature at Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter. [2022]
At the newly opened East Coast Park Precinct, Victoria Harbour is definitely the main draw for visitors. [2022]
The Victoria Harbour installation is quite eye-catching in the evening. [2022]
The waterfront promenade is perfect to walk the dog. [2022]
Apart from visitors coming after the sunset and night scenery, the promenade is highly popular with skateboarders. [2022]
Many skateboard beginners comes to the promenade to sharpen their skills. [2022]
Tracks on the floor also encourage skateboarders and roller-skaters to have fun at the promenade. [2022]
The promenade welcomes skaters of all ages. [2022]
Fixed furniture are also present for the non active users. [2022]
Some advance skateboarders prefer to practice their skills at the curbside at the edge of the park. [2022]

***

Foggy Night at East Coast Park Precinct

Foggy night at East Coast Park Precinct. [2022]

THE DISAPPEARED CANAL, Wanchai/ Causeway Bay (灣仔/銅鑼灣), Hong Kong

Cutting through Happy Valley (跑馬地), Yellow Mud Stream or Wong Nai Chung (黃泥涌) once flowed past Morrison Hill (摩利臣山) and entered Victoria Harbour through an estuary in eastern Wan Chai, opposite to the tiny Kellett Island (奇力島/ 燈籠洲). In 1850’s, reformist Governor John Bowring (寶寧) allowed Chinese citizens to become lawyers, established the first commercial water supply system, ensured safer design for construction projects, and developed the river mouth of Yellow Mud Stream into an area known as Bowring City, or Bowrington (寶靈頓). At the heart of Bowrington lies Bowrington Canal (寶靈頓運河), where the water of Yellow Mud Stream was directed towards the harbour. Some locals found the narrow canal resembling a goose neck, and hence named it Goose Neck Creek or Ngo Keng Kan (鵝頸澗). First built in 1861, Bowrington Bridge or Ngo Keng Kiu (鵝頸橋) has become a landmark of Victoria City ever since. In 1970’s, the canal was covered and turned into an underground waterway during the construction of Canal Road Flyover (堅拿道天橋), connecting Cross Harbour Tunnel at Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter with Wong Nai Chung Flyover and Aberdeen Tunnel in Happy Valley.

Just as Kellett Island is no longer an island and Morrison Hill is no longer a hill, Bowrington Canal is no longer a canal, but only a historical reference to today’s Canal Road. Following today’s Canal Road Flyover and Wong Nai Chung Flyover would give us an idea where the original Bowrington Canal and Yellow Mud Stream once flowed. “Bowrington Bridge” (鵝頸橋) remains as a nickname referring to the intersection of Hennessy Road and Canal Road, despite the bridge was long gone. Many people, including me, who are too young to see the real Bowrington Canal and Bridge, would often mistake the concrete Canal Road Flyover as Bowrington Bridge. To many, the Bowrington Bridge intersection is the unofficial boundary between Wan Chai and Causeway Bay, and also the famous spot of traditional villain hitting or da siu yan (打小人). Performed by old ladies, villain hitting is an old folk sorcery once popular in Guangdong and Hong Kong. It is a small ceremony in which the old lady would help her client to curse the enemy, usually someone that the client hates. East of Canal Road Flyover stands Times Square (時代廣場), a luxury shopping centre and office complex occupying the original Sharp Street tram depot; while west of the flyover sits Bowrington Road Market (鵝頸街市), a large market that include street stores and a multi level complex. At the boundary between Wan Chai and Happy Valley where Morrison Hill once stood, Canal Road Flyover makes a bend and becomes Wong Nai Chung Flyover extending into Happy Valley. The hill was removed in 1920’s as part of Praya East Reclamation Scheme, when rocks cleared from the hill were used to reclaim the nearby waterfront.

Taken from Morrison Hill in 1860’s, Bowrington Canal lies in the foreground. Kellett Island (today’s Royal Yacht Club and entrance of Cross Harbour Tunnel) appears as a distant island left of the canal mouth. Right to Kellett Island is the community and sugar factory of East Point (near today’s SOGO Department Store and Fashion Walk), the lush green Jardines’ Hill (today’s Lee Garden), and Leighton Hill on the right. [Photo: late 1860’s, The National Archives UK, public domain]
Taken at Jardine Hill (today’s Lee Garden) of East Point, Bowrington Canal was surrounded by newly reclaimed land. Morrison Hill (now flattened) stands behind the canal on the left, while the early city and port of Central stands as the background. [Photo taken by John Thomson in 1868, Wikimedia Commons, public domain]
The Canal Road Flyover terminates at a roundabout that directs traffic into the Cross Harbour Tunnel. In front of the roundabout lie Wan Chai Temporary Promenade (灣仔臨時海濱花園) and Water Sports and Recreation Precinct (水上運動及康樂主題區), two recently constructed public spaces along Victoria Harbour. [2022]
At Water Sports and Recreation Precinct, duck paddle boats can be rented right adjacent to the tunnel entrance. [2022]
East of Water Sports and Recreation Precinct stands Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club (香港遊艇會) on the former Kellett Island (奇力島). [2022]
Before land reclamation of 1950’s and construction of Cross Harbour Tunnel, Kellett Island (Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club) was still far away from shore. [Photo: aerial shot of Kellett Island in 1948. Photo courtesy: kingofhiking of Flickr, https://www.flickr.com/photos/kingofhiking/24326760, CC 2.0]
Built in 1939, the headquarters of Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club was an International Style Modernist building designed by architectural firm Leigh & Orange. [2020]
Further ashore, Bowrington Bridge (鵝頸橋) allowed trams on Hennessy Road to pass over Bowrington Canal. [1920’s, Wikimedia Commons, public domain]
Today, the Bowrington Bridge intersection has been covered by Canal Road Flyover (堅拿道天橋) since 1970’s. [2022]
Under the flyover, the Bowrington Bridge intersection is the most famous villain hitting spot in Hong Kong. [2014]
Located in such a highly public location, the ceremonies have become a common spectacle for passing pedestrians and tourists. [2014]
The villain hitting ceremony has become a popular tourist attraction, and was featured in many foreign travel shows. [2014]
The eastern boundary of the former Bowring City is marked by Times Square, one of Hong Kong’s high end shopping centre. Since mid 1990’s, the forecourt of Times Square has become a designated venue for New Year’s celebration. [2005]
The forecourt of Times Square also features large scale temporary display to engage pedestrians. [2015]
Sometimes, the large scale installation would extend into the main atrium of the mall. [2015]
Opened in 1994, Times Square was considered the first vertical shopping centre in Hong Kong due to the city’s high land price. [2021]
Outside Times Square, the busy crossings of Russell Street and Percival Street connects the mall with the shopping areas of Lee Garden and East Point. [2022]
West of Canal Road Flyover stands Bowrington Road Market, another name reference to Governor John Bowring of 1850’s. The 1979 market block was built to house the original vendors affected by the flyover construction. [2018]
While the former Morrison Hill has been converted into a quiet residential neighbourhood centered at a range of social facilities including schools, aquatic centre and Queen Elizabeth Stadium, cafe, bars and private galleries began to emerge in recent years, such as f22 foto space. [2019]
Established in 2017, f22 foto space is a contemporary gallery focused in photographic arts. [2019]
Interesting interior design has made f22 an artsy destination in the city. [2019]
The two storey gallery is connected by a cool spiral staircase. [2019]
The LED wall behind the stair displays the current exhibitions on show. [2019]
A small gallery cafe offers a quiet spot in Wan Chai for anyone who needs a break from the busy urban life. [2019]
From Morrison Hill, Wong Nai Chung Flyover bends south across Happy Valley into Aberdeen Tunnel. [Photo taken from Bowen Road Fitness Trail, 2020]

MORE THAN JUST A DOCK: Central Piers (中環碼頭), Central (中環) Hong Kong

At midnight 12th of November 2006, Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier (also known as Star Ferry Pier 天星碼頭) Clock Tower played its last chimes of its 48-years service, before being decommissioned and demolished along with the third generation Star Ferry Pier. Manufactured by Dent (London clock maker who was responsible for the clock of the Big Ben), the clock had told the time and chimed every 15 minutes since 1958. Although the timepiece mechanism was eventually preserved, the clock tower was discreetly toppled in early morning on 16th December 2006 amid public outcries and activist protests. Then four months later, just a stone throw from the toppled clock tower, Queen’s Pier (皇后碼頭) became the next harbourfront icon to fall victim for the Central and Wan Chai Reclamation project. Named after Queen Victoria, Queen’s Pier was the main arrival and departure point for all colonial governors since 1925, and the landing spot for British royal visits (Queen Elizabeth II in 1975, and Prince and Princess of Wales in 1989). After their failed attempt to save the Star Ferry Pier, local conservationists reunited at Queen’s Pier to held rallies, hunger strikes and candlelight vigils to fight against the demolition. While winning support from the public and even some celebrities, the activists once again failed to convince the government to consider preservation the colonial pier. Despite their fruitless attempts, the incidents of Star Ferry Pier and Queen’s Pier have significantly raised public awareness on heritage preservation in Hong Kong, and triggered widespread support for later conservation projects such as Central Market, Police Married Quarter (PMQ) and Tai Kwun Police Headquarters.

As a port city, pier structures have always been essentials to Hong Kong. Based on an university study of photos from 1863, there were once 56 piers and jetties between Western District and Causeway Bay in mid 19th century. Excluding the restricted zones, that works out to be 56 piers in 5.5km of shoreline, or roughly a pier every 98m. As port facilities were moved away from the heart of Victoria Harbour and the opening of Cross Harbour Tunnel in 1970’s, pier activities along the north coast of Hong Kong Island have significantly declined, except for the pleasant Star Ferry and the other boat services to the outlying islands. I still remember the excitement as a kid in 1980’s when arriving at the Outlying Islands Ferry Pier (港外線碼頭) boarding a boat for day trips to Lantau or Yamma Island, or rubbing shoulders with foreign tourists taking photos of traditional rickshaws at Star Ferry Pier (天星碼頭), or watching couples taking wedding photos at Queen’s Pier (皇后碼頭) after tying the knot at the adjacent City Hall. Each pier had its own ambience and scenery. Each pier has become a unique piece of memory. Since the completion of Central and Wan Chai Reclamation project, the old Central piers are all but gone. About 300m north of the former piers, a cluster of ten new piers were established between 1990’s and 2000’s as the new Central Piers. Assigned with Pier No. 7 and 8, the current Star Ferry Pier was erected in Edwardian style mimicking its second generation predecessor from 1910’s. The “fake antique” and “theme park” approach of the architecture have drawn heavy criticism from the public. Between Pier No. 9 and 10, Hong Kong Observation Wheel, a 60m Ferris wheel, was erected in 2014 as a new tourist attraction. Despite being skeptical about the necessity of a new attraction, many do see the Ferris wheel as a delightful focus for the harbourfront, and a welcoming feature upon arriving at the Central Piers by ferry.

In colonial times, certain piers were designated to play ceremonial roles for the city. A Triumphal arch was erected at Pedder’s Wharf for the visit of Duke of Edinburgh in 1869. [Photograph by John Thomson, 1869, Wellcome Library no. 18643i, public domain]
Landing of The Duke of Edinburgh at Pedder’s Wharf in 1869. [Image courtesy of National Archives, Kew, University of Bristol Library (www.hpcbristol.net)]
Located at the junction of Pedder Street and Chater Road, the Second Generation Star Ferry Pier was constructed in 1910 in front of the former Queen’s Building. [Photograph by Eleanor Mitchell, 1912-1917. Image courtesy of E.G. France, University of Bristol Library (www.hpcbristol.net)]
In 1925, Cecil Clementi became the first colonial governor to land and sworn in at Queen’s Pier. [public domain]
Similar to modern taxis, rickshaws drivers line up outside Blake Pier and Star Ferry Pier in 1930. [Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain]
Blake Pier (middle left) and Star Ferry Terminal (right) had served the Central community for decades before being torn down for the Central and Wan Chai Reclamation project. [Photograph by Martin Funnell, 1955. Image courtesy of Martin Funnell, University of Bristol Library (www.hpcbristol.net)]
The Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier or Star Ferry Pier, its clock tower and car park structure belong to be a single building complex. Today, only the carpark remains. [Photo of Edinburgh Place, 1957, public domain]
At midnight 12th of November 2006, the Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier Clock Tower played the last chimes. [Photography by WING, Image courtesy of Wikipedia user -WING, CC-BY-SA-3.0, Wikimedia Commons]
Taken from the 10th Floor of City Hall High Block in October 2005, the former Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier (Star Ferry Pier) can be seen on the left, former Queen’s Pier on the right, and the current Central Piers under construction at upper left. [Photography by Carismith, Image courtesy of Wikipedia user -Carismith, CC-BY-SA-3.0, Wikimedia Commons]
After failing to stop the demolition of Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier, local conservationists shifted their focus to the adjacent Queen’s Pier. [Photography by CX257 in September 2007. Image courtesy of Wikipedia user -CX257, CC-BY-SA-3.0, Wikimedia Commons]
Local celebrity Chow Yun Fat signed the petition at Queen’s Pier in April 2007. [Photography by Leo Cheung, Image courtesy of Wikipedia user -Leockh, CC-BY-SA-3., Wikimedia Commons]
Locals gathered for the last night of Queen’s Pier on 31 July 2007. [Photography by Wing1990hk, Image courtesy of Wikipedia user -Wpcpey, CC-BY-SA-3., Wikimedia Commons]

***

A series of pier structures lined across Central Harbourfront as the current Central Piers. [Photo taken from Ocean Terminal in Tsim Sha Tsui, 2020]
The former Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier has become Lung Wo Road and the Central Harbourfront Event Space. [Photo taken from Lung Wo Road outside the City Hall, 2020]
As part of the former Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier, the Star Ferry Car Park remains as a prominent modernist structure in Central. [Photo taken from Lung Wo Road outside the City Hall, 2020]
A footbridge links the Central Piers with the main financial district further inland. Each time a land reclamation projects is completed, the time it takes to reach the piers f would increase. [Photo taken from Lung Wo Road, 2020]
With reference to Edwardian architectural features, the fourth generation Star Ferry Pier has been criticized for failing to represent the contemporary spirit. [Central Pier No. 8, 2020]
For many, the new Edwardian clock tower of the current Star Ferry Pier in Central appears like a theme park backdrop. [Central Pier No. 9, 2020]
The real antique at the Star Ferry Pier is the ferry boats themselves, such as the 58-year old Day Star (晨星號). [Central Pier No. 7, 2022]
At the upper deck of Star Ferry Pier, a farmer’s market selling local organic produces is held every Sunday. [Central Pier No. 7, 2019]
Across the harbour, the 1957 Streamline Moderne pier structure of the Star Ferry Pier (天星碼頭) in Tsim Sha Tsui offers a glimpse of what its counterpart in Central, the now demolished Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier used to be like. [Star Ferry Pier in Tsim Sha Tsui, 2021]
In June 2020, regular ferry service between Central and Hung Hom has resumed after a 9-year service suspension. [Central Pier No. 8, 2020]
The easternmost Pier No. 9 and 10 offer fine views of Victoria Harbour. [Central Pier No. 9, 2020]
It is pleasant to linger at Pier No. 9 and 10 at dusk. [Central Pier No. 9, 2020]
The public Pier No. 9 and 10 are occasionally used by private boats. [Central Pier No. 10, 2020]
Pier No. 9 and 10 have become a popular place to hang out after work. [Central Pier No. 10, 2020]
As casual public spaces, Pier No. 9 and 10 are often shared by different groups of people. [Central Pier No. 10, 2020]
Between Pier 7 and 8, a Ferris wheel known as Hong Kong Observation Wheel has become a new focal point in Central Harbourfront since 2014. [Central Pier No.8, 2022]
Sitting up to five people, all gondolas of the Ferris wheel are equipped with air conditioning [Central Pier No.8, 2020]
The pandemic has prevented outside visitors coming to Hong Kong in the past two years. Most tourist related businesses, including the Hong Kong Observation Wheel, have suffered a considerable time. [Central Pier No.8, 2020]

THE GOLDEN GOOSE OF VICTORIA HARBOUR: Central Harbourfront (中環海濱), Central (中環), Hong Kong

Between April 2021 and March 2022, land sales have generated an HK$91.6 billion (US$11.7 billion) income for the Hong Kong government, out of which HK$50.8 billion (US$6.5 billion) came from a 47,967 sq.m lot at Central Harbourfront, the prestige waterfront in the city’s financial district. Like many business areas in the city, this land is created from a massive land reclamation project. Every time a massive reclamation project along Victoria Harbour is completed, the government would increase its land supplies and potential sources of income. The city’s iconic skyline would undergo another phase of transformation, and the harbour would once again get narrower. This new piece of land comes from Phase 3 (2003 – 2018) of the Central and Wan Chai Reclamation project, the last major plan (first initiated in 1985) that altered the waterfront between Central and Wan Chai. Land sale has always been a major revenue source for Hong Kong ever since early colonial times. Due to the limited land supply and continuous growth of the population and economy, reclaiming land from the sea was a cost effective way for urban expansion given the city’s rocky and mountainous terrains. Since 1840’s, about 7000 hectares (70 sq.km) of land has been reclaimed. Compared to 59.1 sq.km of Manhattan Island, 70 sq.km is a decent piece of land housing 27% of Hong Kong’s population and 70% of its businesses. While the search of flat land has always been a challenge, voices against land reclamation among the public has gained momentum in recent decades. Given the negative impact to the environment and Victoria Harbour, many now consider land reclamation as an unsustainable solution that would likely do more harm than good.

Victoria Harbour is a vital component for the economic success of Hong Kong since the founding of city. It is a safe, all-weather and deep harbour, a perfect place to establish an international port as history has proven. Yet, 180 years of land reclamation has narrowed the water to such a great extent (distance between Wan Chai and Tsim Sha Tsui has been halved) that the natural potentials of Victoria Harbour has been diminished. On the other hand, many began to recognize the significance of waterfront planning and its impact on shaping the city’s identity. Up until 1980’s, the harbour was developed mostly for the purposes of infrastructure, with wharfs, piers, godowns, warehouses, and dockyards occupied most of the harbourfront, leaving only pockets in Central and Tsim Sha Tsui for public and commercial uses. Under such context, the Protection of the Harbour Ordinance was passed in 1997 to recognize that Victoria Harbour is more than just a safe port. The law acknowledges that “the harbour is to be protected and preserved as a special public asset and a natural heritage of Hong Kong people, and for that purpose there shall be a presumption against reclamation in the harbour.” First covering only the waters around Central, then expanding to the entire harbour in 1999, the law basically put a stop to land reclamation in Victoria Harbour. If the law is here to stay, then the HK$50.8 billion land at Central Harbourfront would be one of the last available plots of waterfront land in Central. Meanwhile, plans for creating a more accessible harbourfront for all to enjoy have begun to realize, with the completion of various waterfront promenades on the Island’s north coast in recent years. Also from the Phase 3 of Central and Wan Chai Reclamation, the lot east of the HK$50.8 billion lot remains unoccupied in the past decade. Designated as Central Harbourfront Event Space, this land has been a vital public space at the heart of the city, hosting events from music festivals and sporting events, to large scale art installations. After this lot is developed, would the 180 year transformation of Central Harbourfront can finally call it a day, or would the Protection of the Harbour Ordinance be reverted one day due to economic and political pressure? The future is anyone’s guess.

Stretched from the General Post Office to the Ferris Wheel at Central Pier, the HK$50.8 billion (US$6.5 billion) lot is one of the last pieces of reclaimed land in Central. [Photo taken from footbridge connection of Central Piers, 2019]
Included in the HK$50.8 billion (US$6.5 billion) lot, the current General Post Office (4th generation) will likely be demolished in the near future. [Photo taken from footbridge connection of Central Piers, 2020]
The same piece of land seemed like a large construction site about a decade ago. [Photo taken from footbridge connection of Central Piers, 2012]
The HK$50.8 billion (US$6.5 billion) land has been idled as an empty lawn for almost a decade already. [Photo taken from footbridge connection of Central Piers, 2020]

***

The year 1873 saw the completion of Praya Reclamation Scheme phase 1, extend the waterfront from Queen’s Road Central to Des Vouex Road Central. [Photo by John Thompson, 1873, Illustrations of China and Its People, public domain]
After completing the second phase of Praya Reclamation Scheme, the Central waterfront was extended to Statue Square and Connaught Road Central. [Hong Kong skyline in 1920’s. Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain]
In the subsequent decades, land reclamation in Central pushed the waterfront to the current City Hall and General Post Office. [Skyline of Central in 1970’s. Image courtesy: ken93110, wikimedia commons, CC BY-SA 3.0]
Central and Wan Chai Reclamation began in 1993 and ended in 2019, adding the Terminal of Airport Express, the International Finance Centre (IFC) complex and Central Piers in 1996, the government headquarters in 1999, a series of commercial buildings and waterfront promenade in 2008, and the submerged Central-Wanchai Bypass in 2019. [Photo taken at Ocean Terminal, Tsim Sha Tsui, 2020]
Most of the business district of Central is located on reclaimed land created from the Praya Reclamation Scheme in the 19th century, several smaller projects in mid 20th century, and the Central and Wan Chai Reclamation Scheme between 1993 and 2018. [Photo taken from The Cenotaph, 2020]
In late 19th century, Paul Chater (Hongkong Land) and James Johnstone Keswick (Jardine Matheson) carried out the Praya Reclamation Scheme that dramatically transformed the north coast of Hong Kong Island, while their companies remain as the largest landlords in Central today, owning a large amount of commercial buildings including Jardine House, Mandarin Oriental Hotel, Prince’s Building, Chater House, Alexander House, etc. [Photo taken from Statue Square, 2020]
Owned by Hongkong Land, the luxurious Landmark Atrium is another icon in Central. [2020]
Illustrated on the ground floor pavement of the HSBC headquarters, the shoreline of Central has undergone multiple transformations throughout the past 180 years. [2020]
Commonly known as the original northern shoreline on Hong Kong Island, Queen’s Road now lies somewhere between 500m to over 1km (in Wan Chai) inland from Victoria Harbour. [Photo taken at Intersection of Queen’s Road Central and Ice House Street, 2020]
Des Voeux Road Central was constructed after phase 1 of the Praya Reclamation Scheme. [Photo taken outside of Central Market at Des Voeux Road Central, 2021]
Named after Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Connaught Road was completed in 1890 as a waterfront thoroughfare. Today the road is completely landlocked after a series of land reclamation. [Photo taken outside of Exchange Square at Connaught Road Central, 2020]
The towers and shopping mall of International Finance Centre (IFC) are resulted from the Phase 1 of Central and Wan Chai Reclamation project (1993 – 2019). [2020]
Phase 3 of Central and Wan Chai Reclamation project includes the Central-Wanchai Bypass, which starting from 2019 connects Central to Causeway Bay via a tunnel under the harbour. [2020]

***

Much of the reclaimed Central Harbourfront is designated as an open space for public events such as the Hong Kong Marathon. [2017]
Hong Kong ePrix, an international Formula E race, is also held at the Central Harbourfront Event Space. [2019]
Between 2016 to 2018, Clockenflap Music and Arts Festival, the city’s biggest annual music festival, was held at Central Harbourfront Event Space three years in a row. [2017]
In 2017, British trip hop and electronic band Massive Attack was the final guest of the three day Clockenflap festival. [2017]
Before the pandemic, the Clockenflap events were some of our most memorable nights we spent at the Central Harbourfront. [2017]
During the pandemic, the Central Harbourfront Event Space was used occasionally for fairs and large scale art installations. [2021]
Inspired by Victoria Harbour, American Artist Patrick Shearn from Poetic Kinetics covered a large strip of the event space with a colourful kinetic sculpture that waved in the wind. [2021]

URBAN METAMORPHOSIS THAT WOULD NEVER LOOKED BACK, Kennedy Town (堅尼地城), Hong Kong

The first 130 or so small units of Kennedy 38, a new residential development in Kennedy Town, went on sell in November 2021 during the pandemic. Ranging from 229 to 332 sq.ft with an average price of HK$27,522 per sq.ft, 1400 interested parties registered as potential buyers, translating to about 10 bids for each available flat. A few days later, prices went up even higher for the upper floor units. A 287 sq.ft unit was selling for HK$10.24m (US$1.31m). While this may not match the most pricey developments in Hong Kong, US$1.31m for 287 sq.ft is not a friendly price tag either, especially for Kennedy Town, a neighbourhood that not long ago was still considered as Hong Kong’s de facto back-of-house. Today, things have obviously changed. Kennedy Town is now marketed as the up and coming neighbourhood on Hong Kong Island accessible by the mass transit railway (MTR), and a destination where the Harbour, Mount Davis and HKU are just minutes of walk away.

Gentrification has been happening in many parts of the city, but not that many places can match the 180 degree makeover of Kennedy Town, not only for its appearance, but also its identity. The westernmost settlement on Hong Kong Island was named after Arthur Edward Kennedy, the 7th governor of colonial Hong Kong in 1870’s who was responsible for substantial land reclamation and developments in Kennedy Town. Due to its considerable distance (3.5km, not that far in today’s standards) from Central, the city’s central business district, Kennedy Town was seen as an outpost in the early days. From late 19th century to the hundred years that followed, Kennedy Town was home to all sorts of the city’s undesirable but necessary supporting facilities: infectious disease hospital, mortuary, cemeteries, mental health hospital, poultry houses, depots for cattle, pigs and sheep, massive slaughterhouses, battery factories, waste incinerator, etc. From 1894 when the first slaughterhouse began operations, to 2007 when the demolition of Kennedy Town Abattoir and Incinerator finally took place, the impression that combines foul smell, animal whimpers, polluted air, and streets of blood and feathers on Kennedy Town have deeply imprinted in the collective psyche of many Hongkongers.


Then everything changed almost overnight on 28th of December 2014, when the MTR finally opened the Kennedy Town Station, bringing flocks of outsiders into the westernmost neighbourhood on Hong Kong Island. Then suddenly everyone realized that at only four stops west of Central, Kennedy Town is in fact a tranquil neighborhood where a less crowded waterfront and friendly old shops await for visitors to explore. Unsurprisingly, real estate developers were the first to arrive, tapping in the neighbourhood’s potentials by erecting blocks after blocks of luxury sea-facing apartments. Then came fancy restaurants, pubs, cafes, bakeries, cinema, lifestyle shops, etc. To maximize development potentials for the area, buildings in Kennedy Town associated with its dark past were all but wiped out. Shadows of the past have quietly faded away under collective oblivion. Yet if one looks careful enough, traces of the past are still visible in hidden corners and fenced off brown sites. Under the warm afternoon sun, the air is full of distant laughter from cafes, sport bars and waterfront promenade. Even a ruined slaughterhouse or a roadside tombstone of a 19th-century plague victim may not seem that spooky anymore.

The Skyline of Shek Tong Tsui (石塘咀) to the left and Kennedy Town (堅尼地城) to the right, with Kennedy Town Swimming Pool complex standing at the middle foreground. [Photo taken from the Harbour, 2020]
After series of land reclamation, the latest coastline is located at New Praya Kennedy Town. [Photo taken at New Praya Kennedy Town, 2020]
Situated at the western end of Hong Kong Island’s north shore , the Kennedy Town waterfront offers some fantastic views of the container ports at Stonecutters (昂船洲) and Tsing Yi (青衣) across Victoria Harbour. [Photo taken at New Praya Kennedy Town, 2020]
Leisure fishing is very common along the waterfront of Victoria Harbour. [Photo taken at New Praya Kennedy Town, 2022]
Southwest from the intersection of Cadogan Street and New Praya once stood the massive compound of Kennedy Town Abattoir and Incinerator. The structures were demolished in 2009. [Photo taken at New Praya Kennedy Town, 2022]
The incinerator is no longer standing behind the corrugated metal hoarding, yet a refuse and recycling station continues to occupy a part of the former incinerator’s site. Today, the mortuary at far left in the photo continues to serve the public as one of the three public mortuaries in Hong Kong. [Photo taken on a slope over Victoria Road, 2022]
The imposing chimneys of the incinerator and adjacent abattoir compound were once the most prominent features in the skyline of Kennedy Town. [Photo courtesy: Wiki Commons by ken93110, taken in 1968, (CC BY-SA 3.0)]
Hidden from Victoria Road on a slope full of wild plants and fig trees lie the ruins of a former shanty town, where tombstones of the 1894 plague victims from a largely forgotten cemetery nearby were taken as construction materials (stairs or wall cladding) decades ago. [Photo taken near intersection of Victoria Road and Sai Ning Street, 2022]
Caption from University of Bristol – Historical Photographs of China reference number: Bk09-03. “Photograph taken from the recreation ground of Hong Kong University of the western entrance to Victoria Harbour. In the foreground is Kennedy Town (堅尼地城). The large buildings in the far centre are the infectious diseases hospital. On the left is an abattoir, and sheep, pig and cattle depots. Towards the right, between Forbes Street and Victoria Road, are rope and glass factories.” [Photograph by Denis H. Hazell. Image courtesy of ‘Picturesque Hong Kong’ (Ye Olde Printerie Ltd., Hong Kong), c.1925., University of Bristol Library (www.hpcbristol.net)]
The original infectious diseases hospital was long gone. Only a memorial arch from the former building survives to the present. [Photo taken at intersection of Victoria Road and Sai Ning Street, 2020]
200m inwards from the waterfront, the impressive stone wall trees on a century-old retaining wall is perhaps one of the most iconic attractions in Kennedy Town. The tree wall is briefly featured in David Attenborough’s The Green Planet. [Photo taken at Forbes Street, 2022]
Above the stone wall trees stand the remnants of the old slaughterhouse and pig/sheep depots. An account from 1922 suggested that there were 292,184 pigs and 30,732 sheep at the depot, at a time when the human population in Hong Kong was around 725,000. [Photo taken at Forbes Street, 2022]
The intersection of Rockhill Street and Smithfield Road was once occupied by a large cattle depot. An old account mentions that there were 46,347 heads of cattle (87% of the city’s cattle population) at the facility in 1922. Today, the site is home to the multi storey municipal block, housing a public library and a wide range of sporting facilities. [Photo taken at intersection of Rockhill Street and Smithfield Road, 2022]
While all abattoirs have been moved out of Kennedy Town, legacies from the former slaughterhouses remain in the neighbourhood, such as the odd opening hours (03:00 – 16:00) of Sun Hing (新興食家), who used to serve the slaughterhouse workers in the wee hours. [Photo taken in Sun Hing Restaurant at Smithfield Road, 2020]
The 59-year old Tung Fat Building (同發大樓) has been refurbished in recent years from a rundown apartment into an upscale loft apartment. Designed by Australian architect Kerry Phelan Design Office, the project is a rarity in Hong Kong since most landlords would prefer to knock down the old building and erect a new residential skyscraper in order to maximize the financial reward. [Photo taken at New Praya Kennedy Town, 2022]
A 1,300 sq.ft unit at Tung Fat Building (同發大樓) was asking for HK$88k (approx. US$11,300) per month for rent. [Photo taken at New Praya Kennedy Town, 2022]
Just down the street from the stone wall trees, fancy restaurants and pubs have found their feet across the street from Sai Wan Estate, a public housing complex that has been around since 1958. [Photo taken at intersection of Davis and Forbes Street, 2022]
Of course, retail spaces with sea views are perfect for restaurants, cafes, and bars. [Photo taken at New Praya Kennedy Town, 2022]
Many restaurants make use of their waterfront location to create a marine ambience. [Photo taken at New Praya Kennedy Town, 2020]
With an influx of expats entering the neighbourhood, Australian craft beer Little Creatures has joined the F&B scene of Kennedy Town in 2015. Everything was on the up side until the pandemic hit, forcing the beer hall to close its doors in 2020 after 4.5 years of operations. [Photo taken at Little Creatures, New Praya Kennedy Town, 2020]
Golden Scene, a local film distributor is brave enough to open their first ever neighbourhood cinema in Kennedy Town in February 2021 during the pandemic. [Photo taken intersection of Catchick Street and North Street, 2021]
Fully opened in 2017, the fluid form of the second generation of Kennedy Town Swimming Pool signifies a new era for the neighbourhood. [Photo taken at Shing Sai Road, 2022]
Apartments in Kennedy Town seem to be getting taller and taller in the past decade. [Photo taken in Belcher Bay Harbourfront at Shing Sai Road, 2022]
Opened in 2020, the Belcher Bay Harbourfront has immediately become a popular spot for the community. [Photo taken in Belcher Bay Harbourfront at Shing Sai Road, 2022]
The Belcher Bay Harbourfront offers great views of the sea, and decent outdoor spaces for a wide range of leisure activities. [Photo taken in Belcher Bay Harbourfront at Shing Sai Road, 2022]
It is so chill to skateboard right next to the Harbour. [Photo taken in Belcher Bay Harbourfront at Shing Sai Road, 2022]

HOW WE USED TO CELEBRATE CHRISTMAS

2020.12.24.

We got off work early for Christmas Eve. Some restaurants were about to close as we picked up our takeout from a small Japanese restaurant in Tai Hang. In Hong Kong, no restaurant is allowed to serve customers (except takeouts) after 6pm. No countdown events, Christmas parties or family gatherings. Just a simple dinner at home for the two of us seemed to be the most appropriate Christmas Eve celebration for this unusual year. 2020 is an extraordinary year. I can hardly recall another incident in my lifetime that has simultaneously affected virtually every single human being in the world. The terrible pandemic is forcing all of us to face the same fear, frustration and isolation. Most planes have been grounded, borders shut, and international tourism has almost come to a complete halt. This abrupt disruption to our lives lead us to realize that celebrating a festive moment with families and friends or spending the holiday season at a foreign land shouldn’t be taken for granted.

Memory is interesting when it works with time. At this bizarre moment of frustrating lock downs and social distancing, a recollection of how we had spent Christmas and New Year in the past two decades remind us how we used to freely experience the world and appreciate every little things around us. Looking beyond the vivid fireworks and lavish parties, it was our curiosity, freedom and gratefulness that allowed these joyful moments to simply make us happy in different stages of our lives. At this time of physical restrictions and emotional stress, looking back at these little moments of ours have become more precious than ever. Everyone deserves memories of celebrations that worth cherishing. Hope our little sharing would remind you some of your own best moments of Christmas.

We wish you Merry Christmas and good health for the upcoming 2021.

Separately we both had a school term in Rome. In the eternal city, both our studio and apartment were located in the lively neighbourhood of Trastevere.
Rome, December 2002
Wooden decorations for Christmas tree, festive balloons, magic shows, and many others. The Christmas market at Piazza Navona was our first experience of an European Christmas.
Rome, December 2002
I used to go to Vatican for evening walks during my stay in Rome. Vatican was relatively quiet and peaceful throughout much of December. A large Christmas tree was put up at St. Peter’s Square.
Vatican, December 2002
Another big Christmas tree was set up at the Victor Emmanuel II Monument.
Rome, December 2002
After graduation, we moved to London in 2007. At Christmas, we made a short trip to the Belgian capital for Christmas break. Like many locals and tourists, we spent the night at the Grand Place for light shows and Christmas countdown.
Brussels, Christmas Eve, 2007
Back in London, the Covent Garden was particularly festive during Christmas. The Apple Market was full of delightful vendor stalls and dining patios.
London, December 2007
Elegant, sparkling, and eye catching. One thing we loved about Christmas in London were the amazing shop windows.
London, England, January 2008
Cinema became a big part of our lives in London. We often went to the BFI and Leicester Square after work. At Leicester Square, a carousel and small fair would be set up during the holiday season.
London, December 2008
We decided to stay in England at our second Christmas in London. We made a short trip to the area of Liverpool and Manchester. During that trip, we were particularly fond of the Christmas lights in Leeds.
Leeds, England, December 2008
In 2009, we returned to Toronto to do our professional licensing. In Toronto, Christmas is always cozy and homey, and so does its lights.
Toronto, December 2010
In 2011, we made a trip to Cambodia and Hong Kong. With two of our friends, we experienced one of the most noisy countdown at the bustling Pub Street in Siem Reap.
Siem Reap, New Year’s Eve 2011
On our way to New Year’s countdown in Downtown Toronto, we stopped by the atmospheric Distillery District to test out my new DSLR. From then on, film camera has eventually faded out from my travel packing list.
Toronto, New Year’s Eve 2012
Before relocating to Hong Kong, we made our 90-day trip to South America. We spent the entire month of December in Patagonia and made it to Ushuaia (world’s southernmost city) in Argentina. Reaching the “End of the World” definitely deserved an early Christmas dinner at the beautiful Kaupe restaurant.
Ushuaia, December 2013
Ushuaia is the main port going to Antarctica. We didn’t take the chance to do an Antarctica Christmas trip. Perhaps we would regret it, who knows.
Ushuaia, December 2013
For almost a week we based ourselves at Argentina’s El Chalten to do day hikes near Mount Fitz Roy. At Christmas Eve, we did the longest day hike of the week to the glacier lake right below the magnificent mountain.
Mount Fitz Roy, Christmas Eve 2013
We booked the best room at Yellow House Hotel well in advance just to take in the panoramic harbour view of Chile’s Valparaiso, and enjoy the world famous New Year fireworks from the comfort of our room.
Valparaiso, New Year’s Day 2014
Getting off work at 2:30pm on Christmas Eve, talked about a short getaway trip during dinner, bought the plane ticket right away, then packed a small carryon bag and get a bit of sleep before heading off to Hong Kong International Airport at around 2:30am on Christmas Day. At 7 in the morning, we finally arrived in Taiwan. That trip remains as our quickest travel decision so far.
Main Station, Taipei, Christmas Day 2014
Thanks to the convenient public transportation network, we have been to many neighbourhoods across the city of Hong Kong. Because of Cinematheque movie centre, we often find ourselves in Yau Ma Tei, home to a wide spectrum of people from new immigrants to elderly. Christmas Carol in Yau Ma Tei has to be catered for all.
Hong Kong, Christmas Eve 2015
New Year, Chinese New Year, HKSAR Anniversary, and Chinese National Day. There were once numerous firework displays each year over the iconic Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong. All shows have been scrapped for 2020.
Hong Kong, New Year’s Eve 2015
Most Hong Kongers love to visit Japan, and so do we. Their fine sense of beauty and comfortable balance between traditions and technologies go beyond just commercialized eye candy for festival decorations and celebrations.
Railway Station, Kyoto, December 2016
Famous for their lighting technologies, Christmas lights in Japan often create a coherent ambience reflecting their pursuit of romantic fantasy for the holiday season.
Kyoto, December 2016
Under the dreamy lights, the sense of community remains strong during Christmas in Japan.
Kyoto, December 2016
We didn’t expect to see Christmas celebrations in Myanmar (Burma), a Buddhist nation in Southeast Asia. Seeing such a large crowd and festive decorations in Yangon was a pleasant surprise.
Yangon, December 2017
Christmas celebration, Southeast Asian style. Street food is definitely a must.
Yangon, December 2017
I took my parents to Shanghai for a short trip. At the Bund, we passed by the historical Peace Hotel and its Christmas tree.
Shanghai, December 2018
After two trips to India, our third journeys to South Asia was a winter getaway to Sri Lanka. The trip was full of history, spices and fine tea. In a Buddhist country, we were surprised to see so many churches in Negombo, a coastal town near Colombo. A heritage since the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century, Christmas is celebrated in a number of coastal towns in Sri Lanka.
Negombo, December 2019
After visiting and staying at a number of cities around the world, Hong Kong remains as our top destination to experience the festive energy and Christmas decorations in an urban setting. Political and social unrest in 2019 have taken a toll in the financial hub. Tai Kwun, a cultural and commercial complex at the former colonial police headquarters in Central, remained as the place to go for expats and the younger generation.
Tai Kwun, Hong Kong, December 2019
Due to the pandemic, most Christmas celebrations have been cancelled across the city. Christmas trees have been downsized, and lighting decorations have been scaled down. In Central District of Hong Kong, the high-end commercial complex Landmark Atrium remains as one of the few venues still maintain a relatively large Christmas installation.
Landmark, Hong Kong, December 2020
But perhaps the most representational thing for this year’s festival season is the Christmas face mask. Social distancing with a bit of festive joy, why not?
Hong Kong, December 2020