Communal baths and gymnasiums were essential components in the ancient Roman society. Records show that 952 baths of different sizes could be found in Rome in 354 AD. Apart from building up the body and engaging on social gossip, a bath and gymnasium complex might also house a library, a theatre, food shops and reading rooms. Erected right at the hot spring of Pamukkale, Hierapolis was a prominent Roman spa resort. Other than the usual bathing rituals, bathing in Hierapolis was also a form of medical treatment. Founded in the 2nd century BC as a thermal spa town, where doctors used the hot springs to treat patients. In its heyday, Hierapolis had bath houses, gymnasiums, temples, fountains, theatre. Thousands would come to visit the hot spring, including the Roman emperors. The city of 100,000 became a wealthy city prominent for art, philosophy and trade. Outside the city wall, the enormous necropolis suggests that many ancient Romans who came to Hierapolis for medical treatment actually died in the spa city. The recently discovered Tomb of Philip the Apostle and a number of historical sites in Hierapolis suggest Christianity had taken a strong hold in the city from Late Antiquity to the Byzantine era.
Many tourists come to Hierapolis to take a dip in a pool among ruined marble columns. The pool is, in fact, doing a disservice to the archaeological conservation. We just spent time wandering around the ruins leisurely and aimlessly.
Red poppy and yellow wild flowers covered large parts of the ground among the ruins of Hierapolis.
Built in 2nd century AD under Emperor Hadrian, the theatre at Hierapolis has 45 rows of seats that could accommodate about 15,000 spectators.
Tombs and sarcophagus of different sizes could be found in the necropolis. Some sarcophagus were elevated by a post and beam structure.
The extensive necropolis stretches kilometers and contains thousands of tombs from different era.
We once again passed by the travertine terraces of Pamukkale as we left Hierapolis.
Instead of walking down the travertine terraces in barefoot once again, we opted for another winding path to descend. The path is not for people who scares of height.
Three hours of bus ride took us from Selcuk to Pamukkale. Like everyone else, we came to Pamukkale for the spectacular travertine terraces. As we hopped off the bus, we were immediately approached by bus companies selling us tickets onward from Pamukkale. Along the path to the pools, we stopped by a small shop for a bowl of spicy Korean noodles. The first glance of the white travertine pools cascading up the slope under the blue sky was a truly spectacular sight. Pamukkale in Turkish literally means “cotton castle”. To many, the otherworldly scenery of the white and reflective travertine pools is one of the two most iconic natural wonders of Turkey (the other being the rock formations of Cappadocia). The travertine terraces at Pamukkale is made from continuous mineral deposit of hot spring accumulated for thousands of years. Calcium carbonate from the hot spring is deposited as a soft gel and gradually crystallizes into travertine. Pamukkale has been a popular tourist attraction for over two thousand years. Hieropolis, the spa resort town at Pamukkale, was founded in the 2nd century BC and flourished for centuries as a hot spring and healing resort in the Roman and Byzantine Empire. Today, Pamukkale continues to see large number of visitors from all over the world.
We entered the gate and soon found ourselves arriving at the remarkable travertine area. Shoes were not allowed, and visitor circulation was restricted to a designated path going uphill to the top. The only way to truly experience the pools up close was to take off our shoes and hiked up the travertine path in barefoot. Covered with layers of calcium deposit, walking uphill on the travertine was quite a torture for our feet. Along the way, we were disappointed to see that most pools had been dried up. Moreover, this site was just full of visitors jammed one after another on the path. Unless visiting at 8am during low season, it was next to impossible to enjoy the natural beauty without getting frustrated from overcrowding and misbehaving tourists. According to the UNESCO, this world heritage is threatened by over-tourism, hotel constructions near the pools, water pollution by bathers, illegal diversion of thermal water, etc. In recent years, hotels near the pools were removed, vehicular access banned, and pool access for tourists has been restricted, but overcrowding remains as an issue for the management to tackle.
The sheer scale of the white travertine terraces is quite spectacular.
We were lucky to have perfect blue sky during our visit.
The travertine terraces are as white as snow, but as hard as rocks.
The lower section of the terraces look fairy-tale like from a distance.
We were disappointed to see many terraces were dried up.
The scene would be quite different if the hot spring remained flowing down the terraces.
Other than Pamukkale, similar terraces and pools can be found elsewhere in the world, such as Hierve el Agua in Mexico and Huanglong in China. Each site has its own unique qualities.
The weather didn’t look too promising when we reached the top of the terraces.
Before the weather get any worse, we headed over to Hieropolis for a brief visit of the Roman ruins.
Sleepy town of Selcuk welcomes one of Turkey’s biggest concentrations of tourists. Home to the mighty Ephesus, as well as the ruined Basilica of St John (where some believed was the final resting place of St John the Apostle) and House of the Virgin Mary (a stone house where some said was the final home of the Virgin Mary), Selcuk has its unique power to attract visitors from around the world while maintaining the tranquility as a small town in the Aegean Region. After visiting Ephesus, we strolled around the town for a short while and completed the day by enjoying a glass of wine and a moment of perfect sunset on the rooftop of Homeros Pension.
Away from the Classical ruins, Selcuk is still dotted with historical buildings from the Middle Ages.
Alpaslan Mesciti is a 14th century building. Today, the building continues to serve as a mosque.
The Turkish way to chill out: to smoke Turkish tobacco with a water pipe or nargile in the front porch of their home or shop and watch the world goes by. The tradition started 500 years ago in the Ottoman Empire. Its popularity declined as cigarettes entered the Turkish market after World War II. In recent two decades, water pipes have made a solid comeback for the younger generations.
Other than smoking nargiles, some locals we met chose to play music to celebrate the last hour of sunlight.
Many of the elder generation preferred to socialize at the outdoor area of a cafe.
Near Homeros Pension, the beautiful sunset made everything to appear under a tint of orange.
Walking under the last bit of sunlight on the hill was a sublime experience.
For our short stay in Selcuk, we picked Homeros Pension, a family run guesthouse full of character.
The common areas of Homeros Pension are richly decorated.
Local handicrafts fit perfectly well with the interior.
Apart from local handicrafts, we could also find gifts left by previous travelers, such as these koalas from an Australian traveler.
The delicious food at Homeros was prepared by the experienced hands of the elderly staff.
The rooftop patio was a fantastic spot to enjoy the sunset. We were invited by the friendly staff to have a glass of wine during sunset.
With the clean air and relatively low buildings, we had no trouble watching the sun setting below the far horizon.
Watching the marvelous sunset and mingling with the other guests at the guesthouse on the rooftop patio was the perfect way to end our day.
After breakfast, a staff of Homeros Pension drove us to a bank for money exchange before dropping us at the world renowned archaeological ruins of Ephesus (Efes). Ephesus is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Turkey, thanks to its close proximity to the cruise port and airport in the resort town of Kusadasi. The magnificent facade of Ephesus’ Library of Celsus is the signature image of Classical ruins in Turkey. Two thousand years ago, Ephesus was one of the greatest Greek and Roman cities in Asia Minor. Founded in the 10th century BC by Attic and Ionian Greeks, Ephesus reached its peak after the Roman takeover in 129 BC. From 52-54 AD, Paul the Apostle stayed in Ephesus and probably wrote his Gospel in the city. Ephesus was named as one of the seven churches of Asia in the Book Revelation, indicating Christianity was quite popular back then. In the Byzantine era, major earthquakes, shifting of trade routes, and sacking by the Arabs all contributed to the downfall of Ephesus. Its glorious past was eventually forgotten, and Ephesus was eventually abandoned in the 15th century. Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the magnificent Library of Celsus and the 25,000 seat theatre exemplify the former grandeur of the city. Already in ruins since 401 AD, the Temple of Artemis has little remained except a restored column. The restored facade of Library of Celsus remains as the biggest draw for visitors.
Seats for up to 24,000 spectators, the splendid great theatre of Ephesus was the first impressive building that we encountered in the site.
It was the time in the year where poppies flourished.
Right by Celsus Library, the Gate of Mazeus and Mithridates was a arch of triumph built in 40 AD during the reign of Augustus, the first Roman emperor and the great nephew of Julius Caesar.
Popular with tourist advertisements, the facade of the Library of Celsus is the most famous image of Ephesus. Named after Celsus, a Roman consul in Rome and later the provincial governor of Asia, the library was built by Celsus’ son Aquila and filled with over 12,000 scrolls of reading materials acquired by the money of Celsus left behind.
From 117 to 262 AD, the Library of Celsus served as an important public space in Ephesus for 145 years, where people came to read the rare scrolls under natural light at the main floor. In 262 AD, the library was destroyed by fire caused by earthquake or Gothic invasion.
The statues at the library facade symbolize wisdom, knowledge, intelligence and valor.
Episteme, the Greek philosophical term of “knowledge”, was depicted as one of the statues at Library of Celsus.
The imposing Library of Celsus is the most popular photo spot in Ephesus.
After the destruction in 262 AD, the facade survived for another 800 years or so until the tenth or eleventh century. Lying in ruins for about a thousand years, the facade of Library of Celsus was restored in the 1970s.
As an important Roman city, Latin inscriptions can be found all over Ephesus.
Beyond Mazeus & Mithridates Gate, a Corinthian colonnade marks the Agora, the former commercial heart of the ancient city.
Paved with marble stone and flanked by colonnade, Curetes Street was one of the main treets in Ephesus.
Along the street, there are lots of interesting architectural details for all visitors to discover.
The Odeon was used for political meetings, concerts and theatrical performances.
Roman relief of the Memmius Monument
Nike, the goddess of victory, was depicted on a marble relief.
Arch with relief sculpture at the Temple of Hadrian.
Headless Roman statue at Curetes Street.
The Hercules Gate at Curetes Street marked the separation between uptown and downtown.
Beautiful frieze at Hadrian Temple revealed the high craftsmanship of the Roman builders.
Below the acropolis hill of Pergamon stands the town of Bergama and the scattered ruins of ancient Pergamon. A short taxi ride took us from the acropolis to the Red Basilica in Bergama. Originally a temple built by Roman Emperor Hadrian dedicated to Egyptian deities, the basilica was later converted into a Christian church in the Byzantine era. The brick structure itself is massive and red in colour, and hence the name Red Basilica. Massive red brick structures were common in Roman Italy at that time, but was something rather new and unique in Asia Minor. We stayed for roughly half an hour to appreciate the structure’s grandeur from the remaining archways and masonry shell.
Outside the Red Basilica, we had a quick bite at an pancake eatery. The town was pretty laid back, with donkeys wandering on the street and artisans sitting in front of shops weaving carpet. We ventured further uphill behind Bergama, passed by a military base, to the ruins of Asclepion, a medical complex in the Greek and Roman times. Most of the remaining buildings we saw dated back to the Hadrian’s time. There were theatre, pools, libraries, temples, and houses. Patients who came to Asclepion were offered spiritual treatments at temples, as well as physical exercises and spa services at the adjacent facilities. After a full day of sightseeing, we headed back to Izmir and then transferred to Selcuk.
At 21:00, we arrived at Selcuk Bus Station. A guy named Michael approached us to sell us bus tickets. At last, we bought from him tickets to Pammukale for the day after tomorrow. The van from Homeros Pension finally arrived and took us to the beautifully decorated guesthouse.
Bergama was quite a laid back town in the Aegean region of Turkey.
Sleepy street scene of Asclepion in midday.
Dated back to the 11th century, Bergama is famous for its carpet weaving. Most Bergama carpets are made with wool.
Donkeys and ponies were quite common in Bergama.
The Red Basilica was one of the largest surviving Roman structures in the Greek world.
The enormous structure formed only a part of an even larger religious complex.
Unlike Ancient Rome, red masonry used in such enormous scale was something new in Asia Minor
One of the rotundas of the Red Basilica is now occupied by a mosque.
Asclepion, the ruined medical centre in the Roman times, was a well known treatment centre in the classical times.
There were hardly anyone else when we visited Asclepion.
The theatre of Asclepion revealed that the ancient medical centre was once also served as a social venue.
Fine details at the theatre stair.
Ionic columns and remaining frieze and cornice could still be found at the ruins.
In times of Antiquity, Asclepion was the 2nd most popular medical treatment centres just after Epidauros in Greece.
At 19:00 we bid farewell to the hostel staff and left Sultan Hostel of Istanbul. We took the T4 bus from Hagia Sophia to the Taksim Square. We headed over to the office of Kamil Koc and waited for the departure of our first night bus in Turkey. At 09:00 the next day we arrived at Izmir, where we transferred to another bus for Bergama, the town where the famous Classical Greek city of Pergamon once stood in the 3rd century BC. We hired a taxi from Bergama’s otogar (bus station) to the acropolis archaeological park. I was quite excited for arriving at the ruined acropolis of Pergamon, largely due to my 2003 visit of Berlin’s Pergamon Museum, where the Great Altar of Pergamon was restored and displayed for the past 90 years. Seeing the Great Altar of Pergamon in Berlin’ three years prior to the trip was probably the main reason why I chose to stop by Bergama on our way to Selcuk from Istanbul. In the archaeological park, the acropolis where the high altar once stood was pretty much in ruins. A few notable structures, including the Trajaneum (where a headless marble statue in Roman armor stood in a courtyard) and the Greek Theatre, claimed to be the steepest theatre in the ancient world, represented the highlights. Near the base of the theatre lower, we stopped by the ruined Temple of Dionysus to pay a little respect to the God of pleasure and wine.
As the capital of Kingdom of Pergamon during the Attalid dynasty (281-133 BC), Pergamon was one of the major cultural centres in the Greek world. After 133 BC, Pergamon became part of the Roman Empire, and assigned as the capital city of province Asia. As trading routes shifted to Constantinople during the Byzantine era, the once Greek and Roman metropolis was transformed into a medium size city, but maintained its religious importance as it was mentioned in the Book of Revelations as one of Seven Churches of Asia. Then came the Ottomans who transformed Pergamon into a Turkish city with mosques and bath houses that we know today. From the first visit of German engineer Carl Humann in 1864 to WWI, the Germans had made numerous expeditions and archaeological excavations at Pergamon. Most of their findings are now on display at Berlin’s Pergamon Museum. After WWI, artefacts found on site were being restored and exhibited at Istanbul or the Bergama Museum.
Probably the most famous Classical artefact in Berlin, the Great Altar of Pergamon has been moved to and reconstructed in the German capital about a century ago.
The statue of Athena Parthenos was found in the ruins of Library of Pergamon in 1880.
Today, the most prominent remaining structure at the Acropolis of Pergamon is the Greek Theatre. With a seating capacity of 10,000, the theatre was the steepest in the world.
Below the theatre lies the town of Bergama.
Off to the side at the base of the theatre once stood the Temple of Dionysus.
Looking up the theatre from the Temple of Dionysus allowed us to fully appreciate the scale and steepness of the theatre.
A series of stepped walkways allowed the ancient audience to disperse efficiently.
Fragments of classical cornice and frieze could be found all over the archaeological park.
One of the most remarkable structures in the acropolis is Trajaneum, the only Roman building on site.
Completed by Emperor Hadrian, the Trajaneum was used to worship Zeus as well as Emperor Trajan, Hadrian’s predecessor.
Occupying the summit of the acropolis, Trajaneum sent a clear message to the citizens of Pergamon that the Romans were fully in charge of the once Hellenistic city.
The Corinthian column capitals still look spectacular after 2000 years.
It was a pleasure to wander around the ruined acropolis and looked for the remaining architectural details.
The statue of Hadrian could still be found in the acropolis.
Situated at the mouth of Bosphorus into the Black Sea, Anadolu Kavagi, which literally means Control Post of Anatolia (Asia Minor), has been an strategic outpost and fishing village since Roman times. Today, a small fishing community remained. The village also serves as the last stop of the Bosphorus tourist cruise. Compared to the bustling scenes of cosmopolitan Istanbul, the tranquil village expresses a distinctive ambience that keeps on luring foreign tourists and Istanbul inhabitants to come for a brief getaway.
After getting off at Anadolu Kavagi, the first thing that caught our attention was the street food vendors right by the dock. We picked a seafood restaurant, climbed the stairs to the upper floor, and ordered fish buns, fried mussels, fried calamari, etc. After lunch, we ascended the hill behind the village to the ruins of Yoros Castle. We wandered around Yoros Castle a little bit before finding ourselves at an open lookout overlooking the Bosphorus and the Black Sea. Some say the towns along the Black Sea coast are quite picturesque and interesting, but we would have to leave them for the next time around.
Anadolu Kavagi appears as a lovely fishing village.
The waterfront of Anadolu Kavagi is occupied a cluster of fishing boats.
During our brief visit, several fishermen were busy fixing their fishing net while chatting causally.
The peaceful fisherman life at Anadolu Kavagi offered a pleasant contrast to the chaotic and busy scenes of Istanbul just 90 minutes of boat ride away.
Each fisherman we met seemed friendly and relaxed.
A handful of seafood stalls and restaurants can be found at the fishing village.
Just like Istanbul, we had all sort of cat encounters in Anadolu Kavagi. This cat sat right by the dock looking at the sea.
Even the cats seemed content with their hassle free lives in Anadolu Kavagi.
Located at the hilltop above Anadolu Kavagi, Yoros Castle guarded the confluence spot of the Bosphorus and Black Sea since the Byzantine times.
From Yoros Castle, we could see the Bosphorus as well as the Black Sea.