ultramarinus – beyond the sea

Posts tagged “P&T

EARLY COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE, Central & Western District (中西區), Hong Kong

On the night of 11th November 2006, some 150,000 Hongkongers showed up at Edinburgh Place Pier to bid farewell to the third generation of Star Ferry Pier in Central, before the Modernist building was dismantled to make way for land reclamation. Politicians, opposition parities, environmentalists, conservationists, activists, NGOs, professional groups and Hong Kong Institute of Architects joined force to urge the public to fight for preserving one of the iconic structure. Their noble effort failed to stop the government’s bulldozers removing Edinburgh Place Pier and, a year later, Queen’s Pier from the urban scenery of Hong Kong. The government insisted that the 49-year-old Star Ferry Pier was not “old” enough to be classified as “historical”. But the authorities greatly underestimated the public sentiment towards the Modernist landmark, not because its architectural value could rival the most iconic world heritage, but because it was a familiar urban symbol featured well in the collective memories of many Hongkongers. The extraordinary public outcry and intense media coverage have dramatically raised public awareness about heritage conservation in Hong Kong, and eventually contributed to the preservation of the Former Police Married Quarters (PMQ) and Former Central Police Station Complex (Tai Kwun) in a few years’ time. In 2007, the same year as people were protesting about the dismantling of the Queen’s Pier, the Heritage Conservation Policy was finally passed “to protect, conserve and revitalize” historical and heritage sites and buildings in Hong Kong.

For generations before the demolition of Star Ferry Pier and Queen’s Pier, not much tears were shed in the city when old buildings were torn down to make way for new developments. To the government and real estate developers, land sales and redevelopment of old neighborhoods are often the most efficient way to make money. As the former British colony entered its post colonial era, the search of a collective identity and preservation of the collective memories have gained significant ground among the general public. Hongkongers became much more aware of how their familiar urban scenery were disappearing fast. Losing a cultural heritage is like losing a piece of precious memory in the collective psyche. In the process of strengthening a sense of belonging and self reflection of collective identity, heritage architecture plays a crucial role as tangible mediums connecting to the past. These buildings are evidences of the creativity, prosperity and memories of a bygone era, and a unique East-meet-West culture that has defined the urban diversity and architectural beauty of the city.

As the heart of the former Victoria City (維多利亞城), it is unsurprisingly that Central (中環) hosts a relatively high concentration of heritage buildings in Hong Kong. Due to limited land resources, high population density and sky high property prices, incentives for property owners to preserve historical buildings is often low in face of the lucrative rewards from redevelopment projects. In Central, however, one may notice that the surviving historical structures often serve as pleasant breathing pockets in the midst of glassy skyscrapers. These heritage buildings would introduce an exquisite character to the streetscape, and in return push up land value of the surrounding area. At the same time, successful adaptive reuse projects such as Tai Kwun, PMQ, Asia Society and Hong Kong Park, all have proven to be magnificent urban magnets and popular tourist destinations. These projects consolidate Central and surrounding areas as the historical, political and commercial heart of Hong Kong, just like how it always was since the Mid-19th Century.

Almost all 19th century colonial buildings that once stood along the waterfront of Hong Kong have been demolished. [Praya along Dex Voeux Road in Central, 1868. Photo by John Thomson, Wellcome Library, London. Wellcome Images images@wellcome.ac.uk http://wellcomeimages.org. Copyrighted work available under Creative Commons Attribution only licence CC BY 4.0]
Queen’s Building (皇后行), Victorian Era, completed in 1899, demolished in 1963
Hong Kong enjoyed a dramatic economic boom in the latter half of the 20th century. Many 19th century buildings, including the magnificent Queen’s Building, were torn down during this period. [Queen’s Building and the temporary Star Ferry Pier off Ice House Street, Central, probably taken in 1900’s, public domain]
Pedder Street Clock Tower (畢打街鐘樓), Victorian Era, completed in 1862, demolished in 1913
Among all the early buildings in Central, Pedder Street Clock Tower was one the most recognizable landmarks before it was taken down in 1913. [Pedder Street Clock Tower, Central, 1868. Photo by John Thomson, Wellcome Library, London. Wellcome Images images@wellcome.ac.uk http://wellcomeimages.org. Copyrighted work available]
Murray House (美利樓), Victorian Era, completed in 1844, dismantled in 1982, restored in 2001
Murray House was one of the earliest structures still standing today. It was once a part of the Murray Military Barracks in Admiralty, occupying the site where I. M. Pei’s Bank of China Tower is standing today. [Stanley Main Street (赤柱大街), Stanley, 2021]
Murray House (美利樓), Victorian Era, completed in 1844, dismantled in 1982, restored in 2001
In 1982, Murray House (美利樓) was dismantled at its original site to make way for Bank of China. Each block and architectural component were carefully tagged and stored for future’s restoration. In 2001, the building was restored in Stanley (赤柱), a sleepy seaside destination popular for its flea market and beaches. [Stanley Main Street (赤柱大街), Stanley, 2021]
Murray House (美利樓), Victorian Era, completed in 1844, dismantled in 1982, restored in 2001
Murray House (美利樓) was restored and adapted into a retail and restaurant complex in Stanley. [Stanley Main Street (赤柱大街), Stanley, 2021]
Murray House (美利樓), Victorian Era, completed in 1844, dismantled in 1982, restored in 2001
The restored Murray House (美利樓) is popular with tourists and locals for a relaxing meal right by the sea. [Stanley Main Street (赤柱大街), Stanley, 2021]
Murray House (美利樓), Victorian Era, completed in 1844, dismantled in 1982, restored in 2001
Originally a Grade 1 historical building in Admiralty, Murray House (美利樓) is no longer a listed heritage building after the move. The restored version at Stanley no long complies with the heritage building criteria of the UNESCO. [Stanley Main Street (赤柱大街), Stanley, 2021]
Old Mental Hospital (舊精神病院), Victorian Era, completed in 1892, dismantled in 1998, northern facade restored in 2001
Often referred to as the “haunted house” on High Street (高街), the Old Mental Hospital (舊精神病院) has been a well known structure in Sai Ying Pun (西營盤). Built in 1892, the building was used to house nurses and staff of the Civil Hospital before WWII. Before establishment of Castle Peak Mental Hospital in 1961, the building was the only mental facility to serve the entire city (about 1.5 million population at that time). [Junction of High Street and Eastern Street, Sai Ying Pun, 2020]
Old Mental Hospital (舊精神病院), Victorian Era, completed in 1892, dismantled in 1998, northern facade restored in 2001
From 1970’s to 1990’s, the Old Mental Hospital (舊精神病院) was abandoned. Stories of ghost sightings during that two decades has turned the historical building to become the famous “High Street Haunted House (高街鬼屋)”. The building was demolished in the 1990’s to make way for a new community centre. Only the northern facade was preserved part of the new building. [Junction of High Street and Eastern Street, Sai Ying Pun, 2020]
Western Market North Block (上環街市 or 西港城), Edwardian Era, completed in 1906
Western Market in Sheung Wan (上環街市) is the remaining northern addition of the former Western Market South Block. The former main market building was demolished in 1981, while the smaller North Block is preserved. [Junction of Connaught Road West and Morrison Street, Shueng Wan, 2020]
Western Market North Block (上環街市 or 西港城), Edwardian Era, completed in 1906
As one of the oldest markets in Hong Kong, Western Market was established in 1844. The former South Block was built in 1858, while the North Block was built in 1906. The building was constructed in Queen Anne Revival architectural style. [Junction of Connaught Road West and Morrison Street, Shueng Wan, 2014]
Western Market North Block (上環街市 or 西港城), Edwardian Era, completed in 1906
Today, tenants at Western Market include some curio shops, bakery, dessert shop, and a group of textile merchants. [Junction of Connaught Road West and Morrison Street, Shueng Wan, 2014]
Western Market North Block (上環街市 or 西港城), Edwardian Era, completed in 1906
Sometimes referred to as “blood and bandages”, the exterior facades of the Western Market are decorated with banded brick masonry. [Junction of Connaught Road West and Morrison Street, Shueng Wan, 2021]
Old Supreme Court Building (終審法院大樓), completed in 1912, and The Cenotaph (和平紀念碑), erected in 1923
Old Supreme Court Building is probably the most recognizable old colonial buildings in Central. The building was the former Supreme Court, then Legislative Council, and now, the Court of Final Appeal. Erected as a war memorial, the Cenotaph stands as a focal point between the Old Supreme Court, Statue Square, City Hall and Hong Kong Club. [Junction of Jackson Road and Connaught Road Central, Central, 2021]
Old Supreme Court Building (終審法院大樓), completed in 1912, and The Cenotaph (和平紀念碑), erected in 1923
The Cenotaph is a replica of the Cenotaph on Whitehall in London. [Statue Square, Central, 2021]
Old Supreme Court Building (終審法院大樓), Edwardian Era, completed in 1912
Before WWII, Statue Square contained the Cenotaph, statue of Queen Victoria (commemoration of the Queen’s Golden Jubilee in 1887), Thomas Jackson (1st Baronet, chief manager of HSBC), Prince Albert, Duke of Connaught, Edward VII, Prince of Wales (later King George V), Queen Alexandra, Mary of Teck (future Queen Mary), Sir Henry May (Hong Kong Governor), etc. [The Supreme Court, Statue of Queen Victora (now at Victoria Park) and Hong Kong Club (left), photo by Denis H. Hazell in 1924. Source: ‘Picturesque Hong Kong’ (Ye Olde Printerie Ltd., Hong Kong), c.1925. CC BY_NC_ND 4.0, University of Bristol Library (www.hpcbristol.net]
Old Supreme Court Building (終審法院大樓), Edwardian Era, completed in 1912
The 2.7m blindfolded staue of Justice, the Greek Goddess Themis, has been the icon of justice in Hong Kong for a century. Below the statue is the pediment with the inscription “Erected AD MDCCCCX (1910), and British Royal Coat of Arms: the three lions of England, lion of Scotland and harp of Ireland on the shield, supported by the English lion and Scottish unicorn. [Junction of Jackson Road and Chater Road, Central, 2020]
Old Supreme Court Building (終審法院大樓), Edwardian Era, completed in 1912
The Neo-Classical building was designed by Aston Webb and Ingress Bell, who were also involved in the facade design of Buckingham Palace and Victoria and Albert Museum in London. [Junction of Jackson Road and Chater Road, Central, 2020]
Old Supreme Court Building (終審法院大樓), Edwardian Era, completed in 1912
The colonnade of the Old Supreme Court Building is a popular spot for selfies. [Junction of Jackson Road and Chater Road, Central, 2020]
Former French Mission Building (前法國外方傳道會大樓), Edwardian Era, completed in 1917
The Former French Mission Building is located on Government Hill above Queen’s Road Central. Altered from a mansion called Johnston House, the current building was opened in 1917 after a major renovation. The original structure was used as the residence of the Governor, home of the Legislative Council, HSBC, Russian Consulate, government offices, before it was acquired by the Paris Foreign Missions Society in 1915. [Queen’s Road Central, Central, 2021]
Former French Mission Building (前法國外方傳道會大樓), Edwardian Era, completed in 1917
In 1953, the building was sold back to the government of Hong Kong. It was used as the Court of Final Appeal from 1997 to 2015. [Battery Path, Central, 2021]
The Helena May main building (梅夫人婦女會主樓), Edwardian Era, Completed in 1916
Helena May main building was opened in 1916 by Lady May, the wife of Sir Francis Henry May, the Governor of Hong Kong. The three-storey Neo-classical building has 24 rooms, a library, reading room, classrooms, etc. It was home to Helena May Institute for Women. [Junction of Upper Albert Road and Garden Road, Central, 2021]
Pedder Building (畢打行), Pre-war Period, completed in 1923
Designed by P&T, the Pedder Building at No. 12 Pedder Street is the last remaining pre-war commercial building in Central. Built in Beaux-Arts style, the building is listed as Grade I historical building. The building is consisted of nine storeys, one mezzanine floor and one basement level. It stands at 35m above street level. [Pedder Street, Central, 2020]
Pedder Building (畢打行), Pre-war Period, completed in 1923
Due to very high rent, most of Pedder Building has been vacant. [Pedder Street, Central, 2020]
Pedder Building (畢打行), Pre-war Period, completed in 1923
Some say the building is worth about HKD 3.2 billion (USD 412 million) nowadays. [Pedder Street, Central, 2020]
Blake Pier (卜公碼頭), Edwardian Era, pavilion completed in 1909, dismantled and relocated to Morse Park in 1965, restored in Stanley in 2007
Constructed in 1900 as an open pier, Blake Pier was originally located at the end of Pedder Street in Central. In 1909, a pavilion canopy was added. In 1965, the pier pavilion was dismantled and restored at Morse Park in Wong Tai Sin. It was dismantled and relocated to its current Stanley location in 2007. [Blake Pier (卜公碼頭), Stanley, 2021]
Blake Pier (卜公碼頭), pavilion completed in 1909, dismantled and relocated to Morse Park in 1965, restored in Stanley in 2007
In Stanley, the pier is popular with young couples and local retirees who come regularly for leisure fishing. [Blake Pier (卜公碼頭), Stanley, 2018]

QUEEN’S ROAD CENTRAL (皇后大道中), Central-Sheung Wan (中上環), Hong Kong

Six years before the handover of Hong Kong to China, Taiwanese songwriter and singer Lo Tayou (羅大佑) published a song called “Queen’s Road East” (皇后大道東) in 1991. Emerged as a satirical reflection of Hongkongers’ collective feelings in the eve’s of the handover, the song became an instant hit. Even today, the song still offers an interesting cultural reference to understand the city’s unsettling moment before 1997. In the face of Hong Kong’s social uncertainties and imminent changes in near future, lyricist Albert Leung (林夕) made use of a wide range of symbols in the song, from “portrait on the coin” and “noble friend” to signify Queen Elizabeth II, to “waves of pedestrians” to suggest the mass exodus of Hongkongers. But the biggest symbolism is in fact the name “Queen’s Road East” itself. Physically divided into three sections, namely Queen’s Road East, Queen’s Road Central, and Queen’s Road West, Queen’s Road was used in the song to symbolize the three main players in the city’s story: “East” for Hong Kong, “West” for Britain, and “Central” for China (in reference to “Middle Kingdom”, the Chinese name of China). While “Queen” is unmistakably a reference to the city’s colonial past, the historical and economic significance of Queen’s Road has suggested a meaning way beyond colonialism. It is in fact a symbol of the city’s success story. As Hong Kong’s first main road, Queen’s Road was home to the first city hall, first post office, first luxury hotel, first bank headquarters, first residences of government officials, first business district, etc. After almost 180 years of urban transformations, its importance in the commercial heart remains vital to this date. The rich history and symbolism of Queen’s Road has made it a sensible choice for Lo Tayou and Albert Leung in their iconic song, and a reference point to tell the story of Hong Kong.

For its architecture and luxury shops, Queen’s Road Central is indeed a popular destination for both foreign visitors and local Hongkongers. Constructed between 1841 and 1843, Queen’s Road was originally named Main Street (大馬路). It ran through the first business district in the city between Sai Ying Pun (西營盤) and Central (中環). The road was soon renamed as Queen’s Road in tribute to Queen Victoria. As the road further extended in the west and east direction, Queen’s Road was eventually divided into three main sections: West, Central and East. Connecting Sheung Wan (上環) and Central along the island’s original shoreline, Queen’s Road Central (皇后大道中) has long been considered as a synonym of Downtown Hong Kong. Subsequent land reclamations in the next 180 years pushed Queen’s Road Central further and further inland. The business district has long extended way beyond its original extent around Queen’s Road Central. Yet, buildings along the road continue to be sold, torn down and replaced by taller replacements, from the 19th century Neo-classical structures to the 20th century Modernist buildings, and then to the contemporary glassy skyscrapers. Due to its historical significance, Queen’s Road Central is probably one of the most documented street in Hong Kong. Having the historical photographs in hand while taking a brief tour of Queen’s Road Central offers a fruitful way to understand the tale of constant changes, and endless cycle of deconstruction and reconstruction in one of the fastest growing metropolises in modern history.

Running across the former extent of Victoria City (West District, Sheung Wan, Central and Wanchai), Queen’s Road is the first main road in Hong Kong. [Street sign of Queen’s Road Central, Central, 2020]
In the early days, Queen’s Road was no more than a street of dirt. [A Chromolithograph of Queen’s Road based on a drawing by Eduard Hildebrandt, Public Domain, 1865]
This Central-Sheung Wan (中上環) diagram highlights the extent of Queen’s Road Central and some of its notable street numbers in correspondence to the photos below.
1 Queen’s Road Central: HSBC Main Building (香港上海滙豐銀行總行)
Completed in 1985, Norman Foster’s HSBC Main Building is the fourth version of the bank’s headquarters at the very same site. [Junction of Bank Street and Queen’s Road Central, Central, 2020]
1 Queen’s Road Central: HSBC Main Building (香港上海滙豐銀行總行)
At the ground floor covered plaza, markings on the floor explain the building site in relationship with the various land reclamations of Central. [Junction of Bank Street and Queen’s Road Central, Central, 2020]
9 Queen’s Road Central: The Galleria (嘉軒廣場)
The Galleria formerly housed a flagship Hermes store
, before the French luxury goods company sold the 7500 sq.ft retail space for about USD 86 million. [Junction of Ice House Street and Queen’s Road Central, Central, 2020]
12 Queen’s Road Central: Shanghai Commercial Bank Tower (上海商業銀行) & Landmark Atrium (置地廣塲)
In 2016, Shanghai Commercial Bank moved into their new tower after years of construction. Much of its ground floor is rented out to a flagship boutique of Versace. Across the street stands Landmark Atrium, one of the city’s most upscale shopping centres. [Junction of Duddell Street and Queen’s Road, Central, 2020]
Rickshaws lined up both sides of Queen’s Road Central at the junction where today’s Shanghai Commercial Bank stands. [Photo in Public Domain, Junction of Duddell Street and Queen’s Road, Central, 1900]
15 Queen’s Road Central: The Landmark (置地廣塲)
Home to the likes of Gucci flagship and Harvey Nichols department store, Landmark Atrium is one of the most well known luxury shopping destination in Hong Kong. [Queen’s Road Central, Central, 2020]
15 Queen’s Road Central: The Landmark (置地廣塲)
The Landmark partially occupies the site of the former Hongkong Hotel
(香港大酒店
), a majestic luxury hotel. [Queen’s Road Central, Central, 2020]
Founded in 1868 and closed in 1952, Hongkong Hotel (香港大酒店) was the first luxury hotel in Hong Kong. It was later replaced by the office tower Central Building (中建大廈) and The Landmark (置地廣塲) a complex of luxury shopping centre and office buildings. [Photo by Lai Afong, Public Domain, 1880’s]
30 Queen’s Road Central: Entertainment Building (娛樂行) at Intersection of Pedder Street
Designed by P&T Architects, the neo-gothic Entertainment Building was erected in 1993 on the site of the former King’s Theatre (娛樂戲院). Instead of movie billboards that once dominated the scenery at this location, a large LED screen on the podium facade
to engage pedestrians from all directions.
[Junction of Wyndham Street, D’Aguilar Street and Queen’s Road Central, Central, 2020]
30 Queen’s Road Central: Entertainment Building (娛樂行)
Long gone the days when Central was a destination for moviegoers (except a small cinema in the Entertainment Building). In 1928, the air conditioned King’s Theatre (娛樂戲院) was erected along with a ballroom and restaurant. It lasted till 1962 and was replaced by the 1,300-seat second generation. The theatre finally closed in 1990 to make way for the current office tower. [Junction of Wyndham Street, D’Aguilar Street and Queen’s Road Central, Central, 2020]
30 Queen’s Road Central: Former King’s Theatre (娛樂戲院)
The 7-storey King’s Theatre was opened in 1931
. Its predecessor on the same spot, Bijou Scenic Theatre, was one of the first cinema established in Hong Kong. [Photo by Harrison Forman, American Geographical Society Library, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, 1940’s]
31 Queen’s Road Central: LHT Tower (陸海通大廈) and Theatre Lane (戲院里)
The street name “Theatre Lane” says it all. Decades ago, Theatre Lane was flanked by Queen’s Theatre (皇后戲院) and opposite from King’s Theatre (娛樂戲院). Both famous theatres were demolished and redeveloped in the 1990’s into new office towers: King’s Theatre became Entertainment Building and Queen’s Theatre was turned into LHT Tower with the eye-catching slanted facade verticals. [Junction of Theatre Lane and Queen’s Road Central, Central, 2020]
31 Queen’s Road Central: Queen’s Theatre (皇后戲院)
In 1907, Victoria Theatre and Hong Kong Theatre opened in Central. Located at the intersection of Theatre Lane and Queen’s Road Central, Hong Kong Theatre was the first cinema founded by local Chinese. It was replaced by Queen’s Theatre in 1924 with 1,200 seats. Queen’s Theatre was later replaced by its second generation in 1961, and eventually demolished in 2008 for the new office building. [Photo by Harrison Forman, American Geographical Society Library, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, 1940’s]
80 Queen’s Road Central: Pottinger Street (砵典乍街) or Stone Slab Street (石板街)
One of the most popular tourist destination in Central is the historical Pottinger Street. Its stone steps lead tourists all the way from Queen’s Road Central to Tai Kwun, the former Police Headquarters in Central. [Junction of Pottinger Street and Queen’s Road Central, Central, 2020]
100 Queen’s Road Central: Don Don Donki (驚安之殿堂) at 100 QRC
Open 24 hours 7 days a week and famous for its vast selection of household and food merchandises imported from Japan, the Japanese supermarket Don Don Donki at 100 QRC is their 5th outlet opened in Hong Kong since 2019. The pandemic is preventing Hongkongers to visit their favorite destination: Japan. For the time being, Don Don Donki is benefiting from the situation and is determined to speed up their expansion plan of opening 24 stores across the city. [Junction of Central-Mid Levels Escalators and Queen’s Road Central, Central, 2020]
100 Queen’s Road Central: Central-Mid Levels Escalator Since its inauguration in 1993, the Central-Mid Levels Escalator has completely transformed the pedestrian patterns and urban scenery of SoHo, bringing people up to the Mid Levels from Queen’s Road Central. [Looking down from Central-Mid Levels Escalator, Central, 2020]
93 Queen’s Road Central: Central Market (中環街市)
Famous for its Bauhaus style, the 83-year Central Market is undergoing a major revitalization work. It would be adapted into a new shopping complex. [Junction of Jubilee Street and Queen’s Road Central, Central, 2020]
93 Queen’s Road Central: Central Market (中環街市)
Before the modernist version was erected in 1938, the earlier versions of the Central Market had always been a traditional Western architecture.
[Image courtesy of Historical Photographs of China reference number: NA16-019., University of Bristol Library (www.hpcbristol.net), CC BY_NC_ND 4.0, 1895]
99 Queen’s Road Central: The Center (中環中心)
At 346m, The Center is the fifth tallest skyscraper in Hong Kong. It is one of the tallest steel buildings in the world without reinforced concrete core. In 2017, the building for sold for a world record of USD 5.15 billion. [Junction of Jubilee Stree and Queen’s Road, Central, Central, 2020]
99 Queen’s Road Central: The Center (中環中心)
To facilitate the skyscraper’s construction, several historical structures were demolished and streets shortened in 1995. [unction of Jubilee Street and Queen’s Road, Central, Central, 2021]
99 Queen’s Road Central: The Center (中環中心)
The main lobby is raised up a level for better views, leaving the ground level to become a semi-open plaza. [Junction of Jubilee Street and Queen’s Road Central, Central,
2021]
128 Queen’s Road Central: Peel Street (卑利街)
Graham Street Market, the oldest street market in Hong Kong, is accessible from Queen’s Road Central via Peel Street or Graham Street.
[Junction of Peel Street and Queen’s Road Central, Central, 2020]
A century ago, Queen’s Road Central was flanked both sides by qilou (騎樓), or arcade buildings. These unique architecture originated from the British in India, who came up with the idea of adding verandas in front of buildings for shading in hot climate. These architectural type then spread into Southeast Asia, Hong Kong and Southern China and became widely popular in the 19th century. [Photo by Lai Afong, Public Domain, late 19-century]
176 Queen’s Road Central:
Not many qilou buildings survives in Central-Sheung Wan today. [176 Queen’s Road Central, Sheung Wan, 2020]
176 Queen’s Road Central: Peel Street (卑利街)
The qilou at 176 Queen’s Road Central has become a precious survivor in the area. [176 Queen’s Road Central, Sheung Wan, 2020]
176 Queen’s Road Central: Kam On Building (錦安大廈)
A thin building called Kam On Building marks the junction of Wellington Street and Queen’s Road Central. [Junction of Wellington Street and Queen’s Road Central, Sheung Wan, 2020]
181 Queen’s Road Central: Grand Millennium Plaza (新紀元廣場)
Similar to The Center, Grand Millennium Plaza was also a redevelopment project that dramatically transform the urban fabric of the area. Old tenement buildings were demolished and small streets and lanes were removed to make way for the current two office towers and a neo-classical plaza.
[Junction of Bonham Strand and Queen’s Road Central, Sheung Wan, 2020]
378 Queen’s Road Central: Possession Street (水坑口街)
In Sheung Wan, Possession Street, the spot where the British navy first landed on the island, defines the end of Queen’s Road Central and beginning of Queen’s Road West (皇后大道西). [Junction of Possession Street, Bonham Strand and Queen’s Road, Sheung Wan, 2020]