ultramarinus – beyond the sea

Posts tagged “park

HONG KONG PARK (香港公園), Central / Admiralty (中環/金鐘), Hong Kong

In 1890, a golden bell was installed at the main building of Wellington Barracks (威靈頓兵房), one of the three military barracks (the other two being Victoria and Murray Barracks) located between the business districts of Central (中環) and Wanchai (灣仔). The golden bell became a landmark and eventually led to the naming of the area, Kam Chung (金鐘), which literally means “golden bells”. The former naval dockyard known as Admiralty Dock gave the area its English name, Admiralty. For over 120 years, the military barracks had been a major obstruction for urban development, creating a bottleneck between Central and Wanchai. This situation remained for much of the colonial era until the late 1970’s, when the governor has finally convinced the military department to release the land. Demolition of the barracks began in late 1970’s and gave way to a series of developments that make up the present Admiralty: High Court, Government Offices, metro station, transport interchange, various commercial towers, the Asia Society complex, the luxurious retail and hotel complex known as Pacific Place, and the 8-hectare Hong Kong Park on the lower slope of Victoria Peak.

Hong Kong Park occupies much of the former Victoria Barracks (域多利兵房). During construction, a number of historical buildings were preserved, including the Flagstaff House, Cassels Block, Wavell House, and Rawlinson House. The park design respected the natural topography of the site, maintaining a naturalistic setting for all to enjoy. Opened in 1991, Hong Kong Park was an instant hit for Hong Kongers. Combining the natural context and heritage buildings with the new water features, wide range of landscape elements, amphitheatre, lookout tower, large conservatory, and Southeast Asia’s largest aviary, the park has ensured that there would always be something to suit everyone’s taste. A combined visit to the nearby Zoological and Botanical Gardens would satisfy the desire of anyone who desires for a moment of tranquility in the heart of Hong Kong’s business district.

From 1840’s to 1979, the Victoria Barracks was the most prominent military base on Hong along Island. [Victoria Barracks, Photography by William Pryor Floyd, Image courtesy of Vacher-Hilditch Collection, University of Bristol, Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institution, 1868]
Situated between Central and Wanchai, the military barracks in Admiralty poses an obstruction for urban development for over 120 years, until 1970’s when the royal army finally agreed to relocate to the seaside Tamar military base and release the barrack lands for urban developments. [Photo of the Victoria Barracks, Public Domain, 1870’s]
One of the main park entrances lies next to the Victoria Peak Tram terminal at Cotton Tree Drive (紅綿道). [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2017]
Beyond the Cotton Tree Drive park entrance, a grand stair featuring a water cascade leads visitors further up to the lily pond, heritage buildings and other park facilities. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
Built in early 1900’s, the Wavell House is an example of Edwardian Classical Revival architecture in Hong Kong. Today, it is used as an education centre for the aviary. [Wavell House, Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
Built in 1900’s, the three-storey Cassels Block was one of the officer residences in the former Victoria Barracks. After the site was handed over in 1979, Cassels Block was preserved and converted it into the Hong Kong Visual Arts Centre (香港視覺藝術中心) in 1992. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
Built in 1846, the preserved Flagstaff House is the oldest surviving Western building in Hong Kong. The Greek Revival building has long been the residence of the Commander of British force. Today, it houses the Museum of Teaware (茶具文物館). [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
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Adjacent to the Museum of Teaware stands it’s new wing. It is used to display antiques and house a tea shop. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
The water feature near the Supreme Court Road entrance has long been a popular selfie spot since early 1990’s. I. M. Pei’s Bank of China Headquarters stands prominently at the back. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
Full of Koi fish, turtles and frogs, the lily pond is often considered as the central focal point in Hong Kong Park. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
The pond is one of best place to photograph Paul Rudolph‘s Lippo Centre, the twin towers at the heart of modern Admiralty. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
An artificial waterfall and classical balustrade create a harmonic garden scenery at the heart of the park. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
Like many parks in Hong Kong, the artificial pond has become a place for irresponsible pet owners to abandon their turtles. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
With a backdrop of luxurious apartments and the Victoria Peak, the Edward Youde Aviary (尤德觀鳥園) stands in the midst of lush green woodlands in the Hong Kong Park. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
The Edward Youde Aviary (尤德觀鳥園) is the largest aviary in Southeast Asia. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2021]
Inside Edward Youde Aviary, a system of elevated boardwalk lead visitors into a artificial forest setting where exotic birds mainly from Indonesia live freely within the enclosure. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2021]
The aviary is home to a number of exotic birds from Southeast Asia. Critically endangered, it is believed that fewer than 100 Bali starling living are living in the wild. [Two Bali starling hopped around the feeding area over the wooden balustrade, Hong Kong Park, Central, 2021]
Just a short walk from Admiralty station, most bird photography enthusiasts can easily carry their telephoto lens to the aviary at Hong Kong Park. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2021]
Pheasants can also be found in the aviary. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2021]
Red lory is one of the many colourful birds found in the aviary. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2021]
The Olympic Square features an 880 people amphitheatre. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2021]
The “Fighting SARS Memorial Architectural Scene” is erected to commemorate the frontline healthcare workers who lose their lives in the SARS epidemic in 2003. The installation features bronze busts of eight sacrificed medical workers carved by artist artist Chu Tat-shing. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
105 steps will take visitors up to the Vantage Point for a panoramic view of the park and beyond. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
The Vantage Point offers a great lookout to the surrounding urban scenery of Admiralty and Central. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
Looking over Admiralty, the 5 star hotels above Pacific Place, Government Offices, and Lippo Centre line behind Hong Kong Park and its 1400 sq.m Forsgate Conservatory. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
Further west of Lippo Centre, the former Tamar Royal Navy base, Bank of America, Bank of China and Citibank Tower complete the skyline of Admiralty. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
Right across Cotton Tree Road stands the beautiful Murray Hotel, a well known adaptive reuse project by Norman Foster. Built in 1969, the 27-storey government building was successfully converted into a 5-star hotel and opened in 2018. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]

ZOOLOGICAL & BOTANICAL GARDENS (兵頭花園), Central (中環), Hong Kong

Famous for its restless and often stressful urban living, sparing the time to take a walk in the park can be a luxury for many Hong Kongers. In fact, many may not even notice the existence of parks and gardens in the business district of Hong Kong. Behind the towering skyscrapers of Central (中環), a rather hidden 5.6 hectares area on the slope of Victoria Peak stands the oldest public park in Hong Kong. Long before the city was promoted as a shopping paradise, or a foodie haven of Michelin star restaurants, or a recreational hub of amusement parks and vibrant nightlife, or an exotic destination of subtropical beaches and seaside hiking trails, Hong Kong Botanical Gardens (香港植物公園) was one of the primary tourist attractions in the Victoria City. Founded in 1864 and completely opened to the public in 1871, the gardens was established in times when botanical gardens were founded by colonial powers in different locations around the world. The Hong Kong Botanical Gardens was used by the British as a regional hub to study plant species collected from the Far East before transferring back to the Kew Gardens in England, or before planting at other areas in Hong Kong.

Bounded by Garden Road (花園道), Robinson Road (羅便臣道), Glenealy (己連拿利) and Upper Albert Road (上亞厘畢道) in the Mid-Levels (半山), Hong Kong Botanical Gardens is often referred to as Bing Tau Fa Yuen (兵頭花園) by the locals. Literally means “Head of Soldiers” Garden, “Bing Tau Fa Yuen” references to the former Governor’s House built at the Garden’s location. In 1975, the official name of the Gardens was changed to Hong Kong Zoological & Botanical Gardens (香港動植物公園), as a result to the growing collection of display animals. Despite initial researches of botanical science (which led to the founding of Hong Kong Herbarium in 1878) at the Gardens, most people would remember the Gardens as a place to check out animals and floral displays. Though the history of how the Gardens had played a role in botanic research for tree planting on the Hong Kong Island shall always be remembered. After all, transforming Hong Kong Island from a barren and rocky island with no forests, no trees and only grass in the 19th century (resulted from centuries of reckless deforestation) into the relatively lush green metropolis that we see today was no small feat.

Situated right across from my primary school, Bing Tau Fa Yuen is an essential part of my childhood memories. Going to Bing Tau Fa Yuen (兵頭花園) to check out the howler monkeys, orangutans, peacocks and even jaguars was a small after-school treat for me as a child. Every spring, Azalea (杜鵑花) would flourish across the park, attracting a large crowd to take selfies. Many years have gone by and the neighborhood has significantly transformed since my childhood’s time. Though the annual blossom at Bing Tau Fa Yuen is one of the few things that could remain unchanged throughout the years.

Hong Kong Botanical Garden and the slope of Victoria Peak in the 19th century. [Album of Hongkong Canton Macao Amoy Foochow, photograph by George Ernest Morrison, 1870’s, Public Domain]
Today, behind Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, Victoria Peak is almost completely concealed by highrise residential towers. [Junction of Garden Road and Upper Albert Road, 2021]
The subtropical climate of Hong Kong is suitable for a wide range of trees and plants to flourish. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens near Glenealy, 2020]
At the Glenealy entrance, the roughly 100 year old White Jade Orchid Tree (Michelia x alba 白蘭樹) is about 34m tall. It is one of the tallest trees in Hong Kong. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens near Glenealy Entrance, 2021]
Beyond the Gardens and Upper Albert Road, the business district of Central is just a stone throw away. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens at Upper Albert Road, 2021]
Renamed as Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, the park is also well known for its animals, including monkeys, apes, birds, and reptiles. The renowned Siu Fa, a jaguar who lived in the Gardens for 20 years until her death in 2008, was the last big cat kept at the park. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2020]
With the spatial limitation of the Gardens, keeping large mammals such as the Bornean Orangutans is controversial. As awareness of animal welfare has risen in recent years, let’s hope the authority and zookeepers would soon shift their efforts from confining exotic animals to conserving local wildlife and natural ecosystem. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2020]
There are also a number of cages of birds on display, including a small group of American Flamingo. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
Apart from animals and birds, the Gardens is much more popular for its seasonal flower blossoms. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
Different types of Azalea (杜鵑) blossoms transform the Gardens into a colourful paradise in March. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
Different species of Hibiscus (大红花) can be found all over the Gardens. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
Commonly known as pinkball, Scarlet Dombeya (吊芙蓉) is a highlight at the Gardens in early April. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
It’s just flowers everywhere in spring at the botanical garden. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
Native to South America, the Red-veined Abutilon or Red-vein Chinese-lantern is commonly used in horticulture. The flowers are also edible, raw or cooked. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
Every visitors love the Scarlet Flame Bean or Brownea coccinea. Native to Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, Scarlet Flame Beans are now cultivated in many tropical countries. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
Late March and early April is the best time to check out the Scarlet Flame Bean. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
Away from the flower beds and bird cages, an old stone wall tree stands quietly near Robinson Road. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
Built in 1866, the Pavilion between the Fountain and the bird cages is the oldest structure in the Gardens. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2020]
Even if one is not after the flowers or animals, Bing Tau Fa Yuen (兵頭花園) is a great place to just sit down, relax, and do nothing. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
The centerpiece of the Gardens is undoubtedly the Fountain. The fountain that we see today is the 5th generation that was erected in 2010. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
Built in 1868, the first generation fountain was a landmark and a well known tourist attraction of Colonial Hong Kong. The Victoria Harbour and Governor House once dominated the view behind the fountain of the Botanical Garden. [Photo by Lai Afong, 1860-1880, public domain]
The Fountain was once a well known landmark of Hong Kong frequented by tourists. [Old postcard of the Fountain, copyright expired, 1900’s]
Sometimes, art installations would be set up at the Fountain Terrace, such as this bamboo structure designed by architects Impromptu Projects from Macau [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
The Fountain has become a peaceful landmark in the Mid Levels. Original fountain was built in 1864, and has been altered subsequently with the last renovation in 2010. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2020]
Spring is the best season to visit the Gardens due to the annual blossoms of Azalea (杜鵑花). [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
At the heart of the Gardens, a grand stair lead visitors from the fountain to the statue of King George VI. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
Sculpted by Gilbert Ledward, the bronze statue of King George VI, father of the Queen Elizabeth II, was constructed to commemorate the centennial of the British Colonial Hong Kong. The statue was commissioned in 1939 and erected at the Gardens in 1958 after disruption from WWII. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
A greenhouse near Garden Road is home to a number of dedicated plants. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
Erected in 1928, the Memorial Arch was dedicated to the Chinese who lost their lives during WWI. [Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
The 100-year-old Stone pillars mark the entrance of the Gardens. [Upper Albert Road entrance, Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
The same old stone pillars marked the park entrance 120 years ago in this photo. [Old postcard, copyright expired, 1900’s]
Across from the entrance stone pillars stands the former Governor’s House and the skyline of Central. [Upper Albert Road entrance, Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]
The former Govrenor House now stands silently across the street from the Gardens. [Upper Albert Road, Hong Kong Zoological and Botanical Gardens, 2021]

STONE WALL TREES (石牆樹), Central-Western District (中西區), Hong Kong

Entangling roots stretch across the surface of granite walls might remind people of the Ta Prohm Temple at Angkor Wat instead of the city of Hong Kong. Commonly known as “Stone Wall Trees” (石牆樹), the urban scenery of Chinese Banyan (Ficus microcarpa 細葉榕) enrooted on historical granite walls is a unique scene in Hong Kong, especially in Central-Western District where the heart of the old Victoria City was located. In 1841 when the British first landed in Hong Kong, the bare, rocky and hilly terrain of the island posed a huge challenge for establishing a settlement. Apart from land reclamation along the coast, the British also create habitable land by constructing flat terraces on the slope of Victoria Peak (Tai Ping Shan 太平山). From the mid 19th century onwards, local granite was used to construct retaining walls for the terrace constructions. To make the relatively bare island more habitable, trees were planted across the city to provide shade and visual interest. Many foreign tree species from other British colonies such as India and Australia were brought to Hong Kong. Due to its suitability to the local climate and ability to grow rapidly, Chinese Banyan (細葉榕) were widely planted. From these banyan trees, birds and bats ate the figs and spread the seeds all over the city, and into stone joints of the retaining walls. This led to the birth of the stone wall trees.

In 1996, scholar C.Y. Jim found 1275 trees with 30 or so species on about 505 stone walls. Ficus Microcarpa or Chinese Banyan is the most common type of stone wall trees. With hardly any soil to clinch into, these banyans take the wall as their host and spread their intertwining roots on the stone surfaces. After 50 to 100 years, these banyans gradually mature into shading crowns that we see today. Many of these old stone wall trees have survived to the present day, especially in Central – Western District which contains the city’s largest concentration of stone wall trees. The emergence of stone wall trees in Hong Kong, however, was no coincidence. Perfect climate conditions, suitable stone wall surface, and some good fortune of surviving the WWII when many old trees were cut down by the Japanese for timber, all played a part in the story of stone wall trees. After WWII, stone was soon replaced by concrete for retaining wall construction. Concrete walls left little room for new trees to enroot themselves by chance. After a few generations, the resilient stone wall trees have become iconic features for various old neighbourhoods.

Despite over a century serving to improve the micro-climate of the city, cultural and ecological significance of the stone wall trees have gone unnoticed until the recent two decades. In light of the government’s intention to demolish the former Police Married Quarters (PMQ) and its iconic stone wall trees in 2005, the local resident group “Central and Western Concern Group” was formed to fight for preserving the stone wall trees as well as the heritage building. Not only has their effort succeeded in convincing the government to preserve the PMQ, they have also increased the public awareness of the stone wall trees. In 2007, the Mass Transit Railway (MTR) decided to relocate a proposed exit for the new Kennedy Town Station in order to preserve the stone wall trees at Forbes Street. The admirable effort decisively preserved the largest concentration of stone wall trees in Hong Kong. Though not all cases were success stories. In 2015, five 150-year old stone wall banyans at Bonham Road were fell sneakily overnight, just because one of their neighbouring trees toppled some time ago due to heavy rain. In name of public safety, the five healthy trees were cut down before the arrival of a potential typhoon. No detailed study was made before the decision, and that particular typhoon didn’t even come close enough to pose any thread. The hasty action of the government led to a huge loss for the community and sparked public outcry. More and more people become aware that there is an urgent need to develop a strategic plan for protecting these unique urban stone wall trees before it is too late.

With a crown stretching over 28m, the Rubber Fig at Lugard Road on the peak of Tai Ping Shan is a popular attraction for selfies. Origin from India and Malaysia, Rubber Fig (Ficus elastica, 印度榕) were planted in Hong Kong to provide shade during the colonial era. [Lugard Road (盧吉道), The Peak (太平山), 2021]
The aerial roots of Chinese Banyan may look out of place in the city. [Caine Road (堅道), Mid-Levels (半山), 2020]
An old Chinese Banyan is a great shade provider. [Hollywood Road Park, (荷李活道公園), Sheung Wan (上環), 2020]
The old Chinese Banyans in Blake Garden define the tranquil character of Po Hing Fong in PoHo, Sheung Wan. [Blake Garden (卜公花園), Sheung Wan (上環), 2020]
The odd gesture of the Chinese Banyan in Blake Garden is said to be resulted from a typhoon. [Blake Garden (卜公花園), Sheung Wan (上環), 2017]
With a crown spread of 28m, the enormous Chinese Banyan in Blake Garden stands like a giant. [Blake Garden (卜公花園), Sheung Wan (上環), 2017]
Chinese Banyan is native in China, tropical Asia and Australia. [Blake Garden (卜公花園), Sheung Wan (上環), 2017]
Chinese Banyan is very versatile and can enroot in a wide range of urban setting, including manmade slopes in the city. [Victoria Road, Kennedy Town (堅尼地城), 2020]
Quite a number of Chinese Banyans have become stone wall trees. [Tank Lane (水池巷), Sheung Wan (上環), 2017]
Stone wall trees form a unique urban scenery in the Central Western District in Hong Kong. [Between Bonham (般咸道) and Hospital Road (醫院道), Sai Ying Pun (西營盤), 2020]
All residents in the Central Western District are used to having the stone wall trees around. [High Street (高街), Sai Ying Pun (西營盤), 2020]
Stone wall trees are great to provide shade along narrow sidewalk where there is absolutely no room for tree planting. [Caine Road (堅道), Mid-Levels (半山), 2020]
The entangling roots is part of the urban scenery. [Caine Road (堅道), Mid-Levels (半山), 2020]
Wherever there is retaining wall and terraced alleyway, there would be stone wall trees. [Tai Pak Terrace (太白臺), Kennedy Town (堅尼地城), 2020]
In many occasions, the stone wall tree is inseparable with the history and heritage of the stone wall itself. Built in 1850, this stone wall has supported the terrace for the Anglican Bishop’s House and the old St. Paul’s College for 170 years. [Ficus virens (大葉榕) at the Bishop House and St. Paul College, Lower Albert Road (下亞厘畢道), Central, 2021]
Local efforts to save the stone wall trees at the former Police Married Quarters (PMQ) in 2005 have raised public awareness on preservation of heritage buildings and old trees. [Stone wall trees and retaining wall of the PMQ along Hollywood Road (荷李活道), Central, 2020]
In 2015, five 155-year old stone wall trees at Bonham Road (般咸道) were sneakily cut down by the government in midnight. The move has sparked public outcry, especially from the immediately neighborhood. Since then, new branches have emerged from the tree stumps, once again providing shade for the bus stop below. [Junction of Centre Street and Bonham Road, Sai Ying Pun, 2020]
Inflected by fungus Phellinus noxius, a prominent stone wall tree over Hospital Road (醫院道) has been diagnosed with Brown Root Rot Disease. The tree is now at risk of structural deterioration and failure. [Near the junction of Hospital Road and Bonham Road, Sai Ying Pun, 2020]
Manmade structural supports have been installed recently to secure the inflected stone wall tree. [Near the junction of Hospital Road and Bonham Road, Sai Ying Pun, 2020]
The 27 banyan trees at Forbes Street (科士街) is one the largest groups of stone wall trees in Hong Kong. [Forbes Street, Kennedy Town, 2020]
In 2007, the Mass Transit Railway (MTR) decided to relocate a proposed station exit in order to preserve the stone wall trees at Forbes Street. [Forbes Street, Kennedy Town, 2020]
The penetrating ability of their roots make Chinese Banyans the perfect species to thrive on stone walls. [Forbes Street, Kennedy Town, 2020]
Built in the 1890’s, some say the Chinese Banyans at Forbes Street were planted intentionally to strengthen the stone retaining wall. [Forbes Street, Kennedy Town, 2020]
Another well known cluster of stone wall trees is found at King George V Memorial Park (佐治五世紀念公園) in Sai Ying Pun (西營盤). [King George V Memorial Park, Hospital Road, Sai Ying Pun, 2021]
King George V Memorial Park is located across the street from Tsan Yuk Hospital The park’s retaining walls is famous for the stone wall trees. [King George V Memorial Park, Hospital Road, Sai Ying Pun, 2021]
Built in 1936, King George V Memorial Park was built following the death of King George V of Britain. [King George V Memorial Park, Hospital Road, Sai Ying Pun, 2021]
35 stone wall trees lined along the retaining walls of King George V Memorial Park. [King George V Memorial Park, Hospital Road, Sai Ying Pun, 2021]
With a football pitch, childcare centre and seating areas, the park is a popular destination in Sai Ying Pun. [King George V Memorial Park, Hospital Road, Sai Ying Pun, 2021]
The atmospheric park entrance is a popular spot for film shooting. [King George V Memorial Park, Hospital Road, Sai Ying Pun, 2021]
The Chinese Banyans provide pleasant shade for the exercise terraces along Hospital Road. [King George V Memorial Park, Hospital Road, Sai Ying Pun, 2021]
After 85 years, the metal plaque is almost covered by the banyan roots at King George V Memorial Park. [King George V Memorial Park, Hospital Road, Sai Ying Pun, 2021]

HERITAGE VOGUE OF HOLLYWOOD ROAD (荷李活道), Central – Sheung Wan (中上環), Hong Kong

For two years in a row in 2017 and 2018, part of Hollywood Road in Old Central was closed off to host an one-day street carnival known “Heritage Vogue • Hollywood Road”. Live performances, activity booths, and temporary displays were set up to promote heritage preservation in Hong Kong. Being the second oldest street in the city and home to a range of heritage buildings, Hollywood Road in Central and Sheung Wan offers the perfect venue for such an event. In fact, Hollywood Road has long been an urban magnet for all history buffs and foreign tourists. Completed in 1844, Hollywood Road in Central – Sheung Wan was the vital connection linking the military barracks at Possession Point and the city centre in Central during the early colonial times. Today, it passes by some of Hong Kong’s most well known attractions and heritage buildings: Hollywood Park (荷李活道公園), Lascar Row antique market (摩羅街), Man Mo Temple (文武廟), Former Police Married Quarters PMQ (元創方), and Former Central Police Station Tai Kwun (大館), and also popular areas including the foodie paradise of NOHO, the entertainment Mecca of SOHO, and the vibrant Graham Street Market (嘉咸街市). To the disappointment of some people, Hollywood Road has nothing to do with the Hollywood in LA. Instead, there are two main theories behind the street’s naming. First, some say there were once holly trees, also known as Christmas berries, planted along the road. However, historical accounts dispute that holly trees were actually imported to Hong Kong years after the road was built and named. One type of holly tree (冬青) were actually widely planted in the Tai Ping Shan area as a type of Chinese medicine when Western medicine has yet being widely accepted by the people in Hong Kong. The second theory refers to the Hollywood House in Henbury, which was the former residence of John Francis Davis, the second governor (1844 – 1848) of colonial Hong Kong.

For decades, visitors coming to Hollywood Road would notice the abundance of antique shops and art galleries. Before massive land reclamation took place over a century ago, Hollywood Road was not far from the waterfront. Traders, sailors and smugglers would bring their overseas merchandises to sell at Hollywood Road. Gradually, Hollywood Road has become a vibrant marketplace for trading all sorts of curios and antiques from China and around the world. Today these antique shops and galleries continue to attract tourists from all over the world. The former Police Married Quarter, a listed modernist building, was preserved, renovated and opened to the public in 2014 as a mixed use art and design compound known as the PMQ. The project has brought new life into the historical street. In 2018, the long awaited Tai Kwun, or the former Central Police Station Compound also opened its doors to the public. Took 8 years and HKD 3.8 billion to complete, Tai Kwun is the most extensive conservation and revitalization project in Hong Kong. World renowned architect Herzog & de Meuron was involved in the master planning and architectural design of Tai Kwun, transforming the former police compound into a welcoming heritage and art centre. The completion of Tai Kwun and PMQ have dramatically transformed the cultural scenery of Hollywood Road, consolidating Hollywood Road as a primary tourist attraction in Hong Kong.

During the “Heritage Vogue • Hollywood Road” event, Hollywood Road was closed off between Tai Kwun and PMQ to host the street carnival. Live performances, activities booths, and temporary displays were set up to promote heritage preservation in Hong Kong. [Tai Kwun at Hollywood Road, Central, 4th November 2018]
The carnival was a rare opportunity in Hong Kong to promote heritage preservation through a large scale public event. [Junction of Lyndhurst Terrace and Hollywood Road, Central, 4th November 2018]
Passing by a number of heritage buildings, temples, and antique markets, the 1km Hollywood Road is a popular historical trail among tourists.
Trippen, a German shoemaker that we love, marks the intersection of Hollywood Road and Queen’s Street Central. The emergence of Trippen several years ago signaled a change of identity for Hollywood Road from traditional to modern and hip. [Junction of Hollywood Road and Queen’s Street Central, Sheung Wan, 2020]
In the recent ten fifteen years, restaurants, pubs and art galleries have taken over some of the old retail spaces along Hollywood Road. While 208 Duecento Otto serves Neapolitan pizza and other Italian culinary delights on Hollywood Road. The adjacent Chachawan, on the other hand, offers dishes from Thailand’s Northeast Isaan Region. [208 Hollywood Road, Sheung Wan, 2021]
Since 2008, art gallery Contemporary by Angela Li has been an active player in the art scene in Hong Kong, curating exciting exhibitions in Sheung Wan. [Shop window displaying an installation from The Lost Time Travel Machine, an exhibition by artist Angela Yuen at Contemporary by Angela Li, Hollywood Road, Sheung Wan, 2020]
In the past, Hollywood Road Park (荷李活道公園) was named as Possession Point. This was where the Royal Navy landed and raised a British flag on Hong Kong Island before signing the Treaty of Nanjing in 1841. It was also the site of a former Dai tat dei (大笪地), a night bazaar with affordable eateries, stall vendors and street performers. [Hollywood Road Park, Sheung Wan, 2020]
Possession Point in the 19th century. [CC BY_NC_ND 4.0, Photograph by Robert Crisp Hurley. Image courtesy of Sixty Diamond Jubilee Pictures of Hong Kong, Historical Photographs of China, University of Bristol (www.hpcbristol.net)]
26 January 1841, Commodore Gordon Bremer formally took possession of Hong Kong Island. They landed at an area known as Possession Point (水坑口). Today, Possession Point is marked by Hollywood Road Park as well as Possession Street (水坑口街). [Junction of Possession Street and Queen’s Street Central, Sheung Wan, 2020]
The western half of Hollywood Road is the world famous antique marketplace. [Junction of Hollywood Road and Possession Street, Sheung Wan, 2020].
Each antique shop on Hollywood Road has its unique style and shopfront design. [Hollywood Road, Sheung Wan, 2021]
Each antique shop at Hollywood Road might have its unique specialty. For example, Ever Arts Gallery is specialized in wooden furniture from the Ming and Qing Dynasty, while its neighbour focuses on old jade stones. [Hollywood Road, Sheung Wan, 2021]
Liang Yi Museum (兩依藏博物館) hosts one of the largest furniture collection from the Ming and Qing Dynasty. [Near the Junction of Hollywood Road and Tank Lane, Sheung Wan, 2020].
Predating all antique shops on Hollywood Road, Man Mo Temple was the hub for the Chinese community during the early days of the founding of Hong Kong. [Man Mo Temple, Sheung Wan, 2020]
Especially attractive to foreign tourists, some antique shops still maintain a traditional appearance. [Friendship Trading Company (興華工藝古玩行), Hollywood Road, Sheung Wan, 2020]
Shopfront of many antique shops appear like a treasure trove that welcomes anyone who has the patience for a treasure hunt. [True Arts and Curios (趣雅閣), Hollywood Road, Sheung Wan, 2020]
The minimalist facade of Gallery 149 emerges as an interesting addition to the traditional cluster of antique shops on Hollywood Road. Specialized in Asian art and antiques, the gallery presents a fusion of styles between the old and new. [Gallery 149, Hollywood Road, Sheung Wan, 2020]
Aberdeen Street marks the boundary between Central and Sheung Wan Districts. At the corner of Aberdeen Street and Hollywood Road stands a heritage building compound known as PMQ, the former Police Married Quarter. [Junction of Aberdeen Street and Hollywood Road, Sheung Wan, 2020]
In 2014, the compound has been converted into a hub for artists and designers to exhibit and sell their creative products. [Near junction of Aberdeen Street and Hollywood Road, Sheung Wan, 2020]
Painted figures of Marilyn Monroe, Audrey Hepburn, Charlie Chaplin and Frank Sinatra dominate the podium facade of Madera Hollywood Hotel. On the ground floor, Villepin Art Gallery bravely entered the art scene of Hong Kong during the year of the pandemic. Founded by Dominique de Villepin, France’s former Prime Minister from 2005 – 2007, and his son Arthur de Villepin, a prominent art collector, Villepin is specialized in Asian art for collectors. [Junction of Peel Street and Hollywood Road, Central, 2020]
Opened in 1948 by Lam Fong Nam, a sugar cane farmer from the countryside, Kung Lee Sugar Cane Drink (公利真料竹蔗水) has been around for over 70 years. Dated back to about 1919, the historical building where Kung Lee situates is an iconic heritage building in the area. [Junction of Peel Street and Hollywood Road, Central, 2020]
Today, Kung Lee Sugar Cane Drink is operated by the fourth generation owner, who successfully modernized the business to attract younger customers, introducing new products such as sugar cane beer, and repainting their metal gate with colourful street art. [Junction of Peel Street and Hollywood Road, Central, 2017]
Apart from new products, Kung Lee Sugar Cane Drink still maintains a nostalgic ambience with decorations from its heyday. [Junction of Peel Street and Hollywood Road, Central, 2020]
Beyond PMQ towards Central, Hollywood Road has entered the entertainment area known as SOHO. The street has become livelier with more retail boutiques, pubs and restaurants. [Junction of Lyndhurst Terrace and Hollywood Road, Central, 2020]
Despite the changes of retail shops and facade decorations, the bend at the junction of Lyndhurst Terrace and Hollywood Road and the old fire hydrant have remained unchanged for decades. [Junction of Lyndhurst Terrace and Hollywood Road, Central, 2020]
Further east towards Central, the Central – Mid Levels Escalators bends up Shelley Street towards SOHO entertainment district and the Mid Levels residential area. [Junction of Central – Mid Levels Escalators and Hollywood Road, Central, 2020]
From the Central – Mid Levels Escalator, Hollywood Road [Junction of Central – Mid Levels Escalators and Hollywood Road, Central, 2020]
The former Central Police Station Compound, also known as Tai Kwun, marks the ending of Hollywood Road. After years of renovations, Tai Kwun opened to the public in 2018 as a art and heritage centre. It immediately became a cultural and tourist hot spot in Hong Kong. [Tai Kwun at Hollywood Road, Central, 2020]

MORNING SAFARI, Udawalawe National Park, Sri Lanka, 2019.12.14

Day 10 (1 of 2).

There are 26 national parks in Sri Lanka, covering an area of 5,734 km², or slightly less than 9% of the country.  As a small nation, Sri Lanka has a diverse range of wildlife, from marine mammals to other big game.  The island also has one of the highest rates of biological endemism (16% of the fauna and 23% of flowering plants are endemic) in the world.  Having a chance to see Sri Lanka’s precious wildlife in its natural habitat should be a highlight for all visitors.

With several elephant and even one leopard sightings in our first drive, any wildlife that we saw in our second safari was a bonus.  Nonetheless, it was a pleasant experience to venture into the open wilderness early in the morning, when the air was cool and birds were at their most active.  As the day warmed up after 8am, most animals seemed to be hiding in the shade somewhere, except occasional elephants that were looking for other ways to cool themselves down.  The morning safari was the final act for us before moving on to the South Coast.

01Udawalawe Reservoir appeared in total tranquility at 6am.

02Again our jeep passed through the Udawalawe Reservoir before entering the park.

03Our morning safari began with the sighting of a golden jackal.  In both Hindu and Buddhist cultures, jackals are considered an intelligent and cunning animals.

05In a safari national park, one of the easiest places to spot wildlife is the vehicular path because of the lack of vegetation.

04A group of birds came together for morning choir.  Early morning, according to our driver, is the best time for birding.

08At the top of a tree, we spotted a pair of malabar pied hornbills.  Malabar pied hornbills are omnivorous.  Their diet ranges from fruits to small animals and insects.

09An adult female white bellied sea eagle can measure up to 90cm, with a wingspan of up to 2.2m long.

10Due to their high reproductive rate, good adaptability in different environments, and the diminishing of their natural predators such as leopards, jackals, mongooses, pythons, monitor lizards and eagles because of human activities, the population of peafowls has grown rapidly throughout the island.  With frequent damages to agricultural crops, the peafowls have become a headache for Sri Lankan farmers.  On the other hand, peafowls have considerably cultural significance for the Buddhist and Hindu, thus a protected species in Sri Lanka despite of their impact to the farmers.  For the Sinhalese, the peafowl is the third animal of the zodiac of Sri Lanka.

13Endemic to the island, Sri Lankan junglefowl is the national bird of the country.

16With a diet including small reptiles, amphibians, crabs, rodents and birds, white-throated kingfisher can be found throughout Asia.

11In a woodland, a group of Sri Lankan axis deer were resting under the shade.  As soon as they noticed our arrival, they immediately got up and walked away one by one.

12Out of the dozen of so Sri Lankan axis deer, we only noticed one with horns.

14Once again we bumped into a Bengal monitor lizard.  The one we saw was about 1.5m long.

17Of course, no visit to the Udawalawe would be completed without meeting the Sri Lankan elephants.

15In both safari visits, we had seen both male and female Sri Lankan elephants of various ages and sizes.

06In a group of Sri Lankan elephants, we also spotted two babies who were busy suckling milk from their mothers.

18Near the end of our morning safari, we had an encounter with a large male elephant.

20We saw him stopping at a water pond and splashed mud water onto his body using his trunk.  According to our driver, the elephant was “applying sunscreen” with the mud.  Apart from sun protection, the mud also protects him from parasite.  The evaporation of the mud would also cool off his skin.

21After exiting from the park, we passed by Udawalawe Reservoir one final time.  This time, we were fortunate to see an Sri Lankan elephant bathing in the water.


AFTERNOON SAFARI, Udawalawe National Park, Sri Lanka, 2019.12.13

Day 9 (4 of 4).

Udawalawe National Park is often considered to be the best place for elephant sighting outside of Africa.  Advertised for 100% guaranteed elephant sighting, Udawalawe should not disappoint anyone who come for the biggest mammals on land.  For other animals, especially large mammals like leopards or sloth bears, super good luck and an experienced guide/driver are probably needed for any chance of success.  The park is also a fine venue for bird sightings, with both permanent and migratory species.

We didn’t have a whole lot of wild safari experience other than the Brazilian Pantanal.  Unlike Pantanal in Brazil where we could choose between boat, 4×4 vehicle, or even a morning safari hike, Udawalawe National Park could only be visited by 4×4 vehicles.  All 4×4 vehicles enter the park from one entrance, and most tours would start either at 6am or 2pm, and last for 4 hours.  Unlike the famous Yala National Park in Southern Sri Lanka where all visitors flock to chase after the elusive leopards and as soon as one leopard is spotted all vehicles would rush to the same spot, 4×4 drivers at Udawalawe tend to disperse into different areas of the park.  The first safari tour we had at Udawalawe was a afternoon drive.

01Sri Lankan elephant is usually one of the first large animals to be spotted in the park.

04Sri Lankan elephant is the largest of the three subspecies of Asian elephants.

07Native to the island, Sri Lankan elephant has a widespread distribution in the country.

08With a population of 2500 to 4000c Sri Lankan elephants have been listed endangered on IUCN’s Red List since 1986.

03Oriental garden lizards are commonly found throughout much of Asia.

09The oriental garden lizard can change its colours.  During mating season, a male lizard changes its head and shoulders to orange or crimson, and its throat to black.

05Much larger than oriental garden lizard, the Bengal monitor lizards can grow up to 175cm long.

02Known by their rich colours and predominant diet of flying insects like bees and wraps, the green bee-eaters are common in the park.

06Reside in India, Sri Lanka, and much of Southeast Asia, the changeable hawk eagle is also known as crest hawk due to its feature on the head.  They are medium size birds of prey, and are usually solitary except in breeding periods.

11The number of Indian peafowls or peacocks (male) we have seen in Udawalawe was probably ten times more than the total number of times that we had ever seen these birds in the past.  Peacocks dancing, eating, running, and even flying, males, females, or juveniles, you name it, we have seen it.

10The steady supply of water of the reservoir is probably the main reason why wild animals gather in Udawalawe National Park.

12Even with their distinctive curved horns, no one knows for sure whether these wild water buffalos are truly wild, or if they are descendants of domestic buffaloes.  With about 3,400 across the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, wild water buffalo has been listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1986.

13Painted storks can be found in wetlands throughout tropical Asia.

14Native to the island, the endangered Sri Lankan leopard has a population of 750-900.  Spotting one of the park’s 10-12 leopards was like winning the jackpot, given the reserve has 30,821 hectares of land (more than 5 times the area of Manhattan Island).

15Usually live in herds, the Sri Lankan axis deer or Ceylon spotted deer once roam freely across the dry zone of the island.  Now their conservation status is considered as vulnerable.

16Towards the end of our tour, a curious Sri Lankan elephants followed us and get pretty close to our vehicle.

17Before leaving the park, we had a unique encounter with two Sri Lankan elephants who greeted each other with their trunks and made a whole lot of sounds.

18The greeting gesture of the two Sri Lankan elephants seemed friendly, as if a person was hugged by another person.

19After the passionate change of the two elephants, one of the two elephants seemed to be interested in our vehicle and stayed much longer.

20Near the main park exit, we spotted a curious mongoose climbing out from a drainage channel.  It stayed just for a split second and dashed out of our sight.


ARRIVAL AT UDAWALAWE NATIONAL PARK, Sri Lanka, 2019.12.13

Day 9 (3 of 4).

After the morning walk to the Little Adam’s Peak and Nine Arches Bridge, we returned to Zion View Ella Green Retreat for a quick breakfast. The car came to Zion View Ella Green Retreat to pick us up right at 10:30.  We bid farewell to the two German shepherds and hopped on the car.  We left Ella behind and slowly descended from the hills.  Our next destination was Udawalawe, a small town between the hill country and the southern beaches.  The two hour drive from Ella to Udawalawe brought us from tea plantations and green hills to grasslands, marshes and forests, the home of diverse wildlife.  After world heritage historical sites and hills of tea plantations, our focus shifted once again to the natural treasure of Udawalawe National Park.

Established in 1972 as a sanctuary for wildlife displaced by the construction of Udawalawe Reservoir, the 30,821 hectares national park has become the third most visited park in the nation.  With an annual rainfall of 1,500mm, the park lies at the boundary between Sri Lanka’s wet and dry zones.  Within the park, there are marshes, grasslands and forests.  Udawalawe is famous for its 250 or so Sri Lanka elephants. Other mammal species found in the park include Sri Lankan leopard, rusty-spotted cat, sloth bear,  Sri Lanka sambar deer, Sri Lankan axis deer, wild boar, water buffalo, jackal, civet, monkey, mongoose, etc.  The park is also a good venue for bird watching, and so as reptiles including lizards, crocodiles, and snakes.

01Passing the Rawana Ella Falls on the Wellawaya Ella Kumbalwela Highway signified our departure from Ella.

03The more we get closer to Udawalawe, the higher the chance we might see wildlife along the highway.

02Domestic water buffalo are kept for their milk (curd and ghee) and rice cultivation.

04Sri Lankan elephant is undoubtedly the superstar in Udawalawe, and can often be seen along the road.

05Elephants are highly intelligent animals.  According to our driver, some of the curious males have learnt to approach the highway fence regularly to greet tourists in exchange for easy treats like bananas.

06Roadside stores near Udawalawe offer visitors a convenient stop for fruits, and perhaps have indirectly encouraged the unnatural habit of the highway approaching elephants.

08Despite the popularity of the national park, the town of Udawalawe is relatively tourist-free.  There is hardly any tourist souvenir shops along the main road.

09Bakery tuk tuk is quite common across the country.  As soon as we heard the music of Beethoven’s Fur Elise, we knew one of these mobile bread vendors must be nearby.

07Our guesthouse Green View Safari Resort was at a side street across the road from R/Emb/Udawalawa Primary School.

10Hidden from the dusty main road, our guesthouse for the night Green View Safari Resort was a simple little retreat.

11Facility was clean and simple.  The guesthouse owners arranged both the afternoon and morning safari for us.

12Dinner and breakfast were included in our one-night stay at Green View Safari Resort.

13To reach the national park from Udawalawe, our jeep would pass by Udawalawe Reservoir, a place of potential wildlife sighting before reaching the park entrance.

14Locals came to the dam to catch the sunset.

15The Udawalawe Dam separates the lush green forest on one side and the peaceful reservoir on the other.

16 The Udawalawe Dam provides a high ground to watch the distant scenery.

17The lush green forest revealed what the area might have look like before the construction of the reservoir.

18Local wildlife has adapted to the man-made environment of Udawalawe Reservoir.  The water has even attracted wildlife including birds and elephants.

19Beyond the reservoir, we finally arrived at the ticket office of Udawalawe National Park.

20We chose Udawalawe National Park over Yala National Park was an attempt to avoid overcrowding.  During our first safari visit, the entry route into the park was loaded with tourist 4×4 vehicles.  Luckily, as we ventured deeper into the park, we would have the park pretty much by ourselves.