ultramarinus – beyond the sea

Posts tagged “Murray

EARLY ARCHITECTURE OF VICTORIA CITY, Central & Western District (中西區), Hong Kong

On the night of 11th November 2006, some 150,000 Hongkongers showed up at Edinburgh Place Pier to bid farewell to the third generation of Star Ferry Pier in Central, before the Modernist building was dismantled to make way for land reclamation. Politicians, opposition parities, environmentalists, conservationists, activists, NGOs, professional groups and Hong Kong Institute of Architects joined force to urge the public to fight for preserving one of the iconic structure. Their noble effort failed to stop the government’s bulldozers removing Edinburgh Place Pier and, a year later, Queen’s Pier from the urban scenery of Hong Kong. The government insisted that the 49-year-old Star Ferry Pier was not “old” enough to be classified as “historical”. But the authorities greatly underestimated the public sentiment towards the Modernist landmark, not because its architectural value could rival the most iconic world heritage, but because it was a familiar urban symbol featured well in the collective memories of many Hongkongers. The extraordinary public outcry and intense media coverage have dramatically raised public awareness about heritage conservation in Hong Kong, and eventually contributed to the preservation of the Former Police Married Quarters (PMQ) and Former Central Police Station Complex (Tai Kwun) in a few years’ time. In 2007, the same year as people were protesting about the dismantling of the Queen’s Pier, the Heritage Conservation Policy was finally passed “to protect, conserve and revitalize” historical and heritage sites and buildings in Hong Kong.

For generations before the demolition of Star Ferry Pier and Queen’s Pier, not much tears were shed in the city when old buildings were torn down to make way for new developments. To the government and real estate developers, land sales and redevelopment of old neighborhoods are often the most efficient way to make money. As the former British colony entered its post colonial era, the search of a collective identity and preservation of the collective memories have gained significant ground among the general public. Hongkongers became much more aware of how their familiar urban scenery were disappearing fast. Losing a cultural heritage is like losing a piece of precious memory in the collective psyche. In the process of strengthening a sense of belonging and self reflection of collective identity, heritage architecture plays a crucial role as tangible mediums connecting to the past. These buildings are evidences of the creativity, prosperity and memories of a bygone era, and a unique East-meet-West culture that has defined the urban diversity and architectural beauty of the city.

As the heart of the former Victoria City (維多利亞城), it is unsurprisingly that Central (中環) hosts a relatively high concentration of heritage buildings in Hong Kong. Due to limited land resources, high population density and sky high property prices, incentives for property owners to preserve historical buildings is often low in face of the lucrative rewards from redevelopment projects. In Central, however, one may notice that the surviving historical structures often serve as pleasant breathing pockets in the midst of glassy skyscrapers. These heritage buildings would introduce an exquisite character to the streetscape, and in return push up land value of the surrounding area. At the same time, successful adaptive reuse projects such as Tai Kwun, PMQ, Asia Society and Hong Kong Park, all have proven to be magnificent urban magnets and popular tourist destinations. These projects consolidate Central and surrounding areas as the historical, political and commercial heart of Hong Kong, just like how it always was since the Mid-19th Century.

Almost all 19th century colonial buildings that once stood along the waterfront of Hong Kong have been demolished. [Praya along Dex Voeux Road in Central, 1868. Photo by John Thomson, Wellcome Library, London. Wellcome Images images@wellcome.ac.uk http://wellcomeimages.org. Copyrighted work available under Creative Commons Attribution only licence CC BY 4.0]
Queen’s Building (皇后行), Victorian Era, completed in 1899, demolished in 1963
Hong Kong enjoyed a dramatic economic boom in the latter half of the 20th century. Many 19th century buildings, including the magnificent Queen’s Building, were torn down during this period. [Queen’s Building and the temporary Star Ferry Pier off Ice House Street, Central, probably taken in 1900’s, public domain]
Pedder Street Clock Tower (畢打街鐘樓), Victorian Era, completed in 1862, demolished in 1913
Among all the early buildings in Central, Pedder Street Clock Tower was one the most recognizable landmarks before it was taken down in 1913. [Pedder Street Clock Tower, Central, 1868. Photo by John Thomson, Wellcome Library, London. Wellcome Images images@wellcome.ac.uk http://wellcomeimages.org. Copyrighted work available]
Murray House (美利樓), Victorian Era, completed in 1844, dismantled in 1982, restored in 2001
Murray House was one of the earliest structures still standing today. It was once a part of the Murray Military Barracks in Admiralty, occupying the site where I. M. Pei’s Bank of China Tower is standing today. [Stanley Main Street (赤柱大街), Stanley, 2021]
Murray House (美利樓), Victorian Era, completed in 1844, dismantled in 1982, restored in 2001
In 1982, Murray House (美利樓) was dismantled at its original site to make way for Bank of China. Each block and architectural component were carefully tagged and stored for future’s restoration. In 2001, the building was restored in Stanley (赤柱), a sleepy seaside destination popular for its flea market and beaches. [Stanley Main Street (赤柱大街), Stanley, 2021]
Murray House (美利樓), Victorian Era, completed in 1844, dismantled in 1982, restored in 2001
Murray House (美利樓) was restored and adapted into a retail and restaurant complex in Stanley. [Stanley Main Street (赤柱大街), Stanley, 2021]
Murray House (美利樓), Victorian Era, completed in 1844, dismantled in 1982, restored in 2001
The restored Murray House (美利樓) is popular with tourists and locals for a relaxing meal right by the sea. [Stanley Main Street (赤柱大街), Stanley, 2021]
Murray House (美利樓), Victorian Era, completed in 1844, dismantled in 1982, restored in 2001
Originally a Grade 1 historical building in Admiralty, Murray House (美利樓) is no longer a listed heritage building after the move. The restored version at Stanley no long complies with the heritage building criteria of the UNESCO. [Stanley Main Street (赤柱大街), Stanley, 2021]
Old Mental Hospital (舊精神病院), Victorian Era, completed in 1892, dismantled in 1998, northern facade restored in 2001
Often referred to as the “haunted house” on High Street (高街), the Old Mental Hospital (舊精神病院) has been a well known structure in Sai Ying Pun (西營盤). Built in 1892, the building was used to house nurses and staff of the Civil Hospital before WWII. Before establishment of Castle Peak Mental Hospital in 1961, the building was the only mental facility to serve the entire city (about 1.5 million population at that time). [Junction of High Street and Eastern Street, Sai Ying Pun, 2020]
Old Mental Hospital (舊精神病院), Victorian Era, completed in 1892, dismantled in 1998, northern facade restored in 2001
From 1970’s to 1990’s, the Old Mental Hospital (舊精神病院) was abandoned. Stories of ghost sightings during that two decades has turned the historical building to become the famous “High Street Haunted House (高街鬼屋)”. The building was demolished in the 1990’s to make way for a new community centre. Only the northern facade was preserved part of the new building. [Junction of High Street and Eastern Street, Sai Ying Pun, 2020]
Western Market North Block (上環街市 or 西港城), Edwardian Era, completed in 1906
Western Market in Sheung Wan (上環街市) is the remaining northern addition of the former Western Market South Block. The former main market building was demolished in 1981, while the smaller North Block is preserved. [Junction of Connaught Road West and Morrison Street, Shueng Wan, 2020]
Western Market North Block (上環街市 or 西港城), Edwardian Era, completed in 1906
As one of the oldest markets in Hong Kong, Western Market was established in 1844. The former South Block was built in 1858, while the North Block was built in 1906. The building was constructed in Queen Anne Revival architectural style. [Junction of Connaught Road West and Morrison Street, Shueng Wan, 2014]
Western Market North Block (上環街市 or 西港城), Edwardian Era, completed in 1906
Today, tenants at Western Market include some curio shops, bakery, dessert shop, and a group of textile merchants. [Junction of Connaught Road West and Morrison Street, Shueng Wan, 2014]
Western Market North Block (上環街市 or 西港城), Edwardian Era, completed in 1906
Sometimes referred to as “blood and bandages”, the exterior facades of the Western Market are decorated with banded brick masonry. [Junction of Connaught Road West and Morrison Street, Shueng Wan, 2021]
Old Supreme Court Building (終審法院大樓), completed in 1912, and The Cenotaph (和平紀念碑), erected in 1923
Old Supreme Court Building is probably the most recognizable old colonial buildings in Central. The building was the former Supreme Court, then Legislative Council, and now, the Court of Final Appeal. Erected as a war memorial, the Cenotaph stands as a focal point between the Old Supreme Court, Statue Square, City Hall and Hong Kong Club. [Junction of Jackson Road and Connaught Road Central, Central, 2021]
Old Supreme Court Building (終審法院大樓), completed in 1912, and The Cenotaph (和平紀念碑), erected in 1923
The Cenotaph is a replica of the Cenotaph on Whitehall in London. [Statue Square, Central, 2021]
Old Supreme Court Building (終審法院大樓), Edwardian Era, completed in 1912
Before WWII, Statue Square contained the Cenotaph, statue of Queen Victoria (commemoration of the Queen’s Golden Jubilee in 1887), Thomas Jackson (1st Baronet, chief manager of HSBC), Prince Albert, Duke of Connaught, Edward VII, Prince of Wales (later King George V), Queen Alexandra, Mary of Teck (future Queen Mary), Sir Henry May (Hong Kong Governor), etc. [The Supreme Court, Statue of Queen Victora (now at Victoria Park) and Hong Kong Club (left), photo by Denis H. Hazell in 1924. Source: ‘Picturesque Hong Kong’ (Ye Olde Printerie Ltd., Hong Kong), c.1925. CC BY_NC_ND 4.0, University of Bristol Library (www.hpcbristol.net]
Old Supreme Court Building (終審法院大樓), Edwardian Era, completed in 1912
The 2.7m blindfolded staue of Justice, the Greek Goddess Themis, has been the icon of justice in Hong Kong for a century. Below the statue is the pediment with the inscription “Erected AD MDCCCCX (1910), and British Royal Coat of Arms: the three lions of England, lion of Scotland and harp of Ireland on the shield, supported by the English lion and Scottish unicorn. [Junction of Jackson Road and Chater Road, Central, 2020]
Old Supreme Court Building (終審法院大樓), Edwardian Era, completed in 1912
The Neo-Classical building was designed by Aston Webb and Ingress Bell, who were also involved in the facade design of Buckingham Palace and Victoria and Albert Museum in London. [Junction of Jackson Road and Chater Road, Central, 2020]
Old Supreme Court Building (終審法院大樓), Edwardian Era, completed in 1912
The colonnade of the Old Supreme Court Building is a popular spot for selfies. [Junction of Jackson Road and Chater Road, Central, 2020]
Former French Mission Building (前法國外方傳道會大樓), Edwardian Era, completed in 1917
The Former French Mission Building is located on Government Hill above Queen’s Road Central. Altered from a mansion called Johnston House, the current building was opened in 1917 after a major renovation. The original structure was used as the residence of the Governor, home of the Legislative Council, HSBC, Russian Consulate, government offices, before it was acquired by the Paris Foreign Missions Society in 1915. [Queen’s Road Central, Central, 2021]
Former French Mission Building (前法國外方傳道會大樓), Edwardian Era, completed in 1917
In 1953, the building was sold back to the government of Hong Kong. It was used as the Court of Final Appeal from 1997 to 2015. [Battery Path, Central, 2021]
The Helena May main building (梅夫人婦女會主樓), Edwardian Era, Completed in 1916
Helena May main building was opened in 1916 by Lady May, the wife of Sir Francis Henry May, the Governor of Hong Kong. The three-storey Neo-classical building has 24 rooms, a library, reading room, classrooms, etc. It was home to Helena May Institute for Women. [Junction of Upper Albert Road and Garden Road, Central, 2021]
Pedder Building (畢打行), Pre-war Period, completed in 1923
Designed by P&T, the Pedder Building at No. 12 Pedder Street is the last remaining pre-war commercial building in Central. Built in Beaux-Arts style, the building is listed as Grade I historical building. The building is consisted of nine storeys, one mezzanine floor and one basement level. It stands at 35m above street level. [Pedder Street, Central, 2020]
Pedder Building (畢打行), Pre-war Period, completed in 1923
Due to very high rent, most of Pedder Building has been vacant. [Pedder Street, Central, 2020]
Pedder Building (畢打行), Pre-war Period, completed in 1923
Some say the building is worth about HKD 3.2 billion (USD 412 million) nowadays. [Pedder Street, Central, 2020]
Blake Pier (卜公碼頭), Edwardian Era, pavilion completed in 1909, dismantled and relocated to Morse Park in 1965, restored in Stanley in 2007
Constructed in 1900 as an open pier, Blake Pier was originally located at the end of Pedder Street in Central. In 1909, a pavilion canopy was added. In 1965, the pier pavilion was dismantled and restored at Morse Park in Wong Tai Sin. It was dismantled and relocated to its current Stanley location in 2007. [Blake Pier (卜公碼頭), Stanley, 2021]
Blake Pier (卜公碼頭), pavilion completed in 1909, dismantled and relocated to Morse Park in 1965, restored in Stanley in 2007
In Stanley, the pier is popular with young couples and local retirees who come regularly for leisure fishing. [Blake Pier (卜公碼頭), Stanley, 2018]

HONG KONG PARK (香港公園), Central / Admiralty (中環/金鐘), Hong Kong

In 1890, a golden bell was installed at the main building of Wellington Barracks (威靈頓兵房), one of the three military barracks (the other two being Victoria and Murray Barracks) located between the business districts of Central (中環) and Wanchai (灣仔). The golden bell became a landmark and eventually led to the naming of the area, Kam Chung (金鐘), which literally means “golden bells”. The former naval dockyard known as Admiralty Dock gave the area its English name, Admiralty. For over 120 years, the military barracks had been a major obstruction for urban development, creating a bottleneck between Central and Wanchai. This situation remained for much of the colonial era until the late 1970’s, when the governor has finally convinced the military department to release the land. Demolition of the barracks began in late 1970’s and gave way to a series of developments that make up the present Admiralty: High Court, Government Offices, metro station, transport interchange, various commercial towers, the Asia Society complex, the luxurious retail and hotel complex known as Pacific Place, and the 8-hectare Hong Kong Park on the lower slope of Victoria Peak.

Hong Kong Park occupies much of the former Victoria Barracks (域多利兵房). During construction, a number of historical buildings were preserved, including the Flagstaff House, Cassels Block, Wavell House, and Rawlinson House. The park design respected the natural topography of the site, maintaining a naturalistic setting for all to enjoy. Opened in 1991, Hong Kong Park was an instant hit for Hong Kongers. Combining the natural context and heritage buildings with the new water features, wide range of landscape elements, amphitheatre, lookout tower, large conservatory, and Southeast Asia’s largest aviary, the park has ensured that there would always be something to suit everyone’s taste. A combined visit to the nearby Zoological and Botanical Gardens would satisfy the desire of anyone who desires for a moment of tranquility in the heart of Hong Kong’s business district.

From 1840’s to 1979, the Victoria Barracks was the most prominent military base on Hong along Island. [Victoria Barracks, Photography by William Pryor Floyd, Image courtesy of Vacher-Hilditch Collection, University of Bristol, Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institution, 1868]
Situated between Central and Wanchai, the military barracks in Admiralty poses an obstruction for urban development for over 120 years, until 1970’s when the royal army finally agreed to relocate to the seaside Tamar military base and release the barrack lands for urban developments. [Photo of the Victoria Barracks, Public Domain, 1870’s]
One of the main park entrances lies next to the Victoria Peak Tram terminal at Cotton Tree Drive (紅綿道). [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2017]
Beyond the Cotton Tree Drive park entrance, a grand stair featuring a water cascade leads visitors further up to the lily pond, heritage buildings and other park facilities. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
Built in early 1900’s, the Wavell House is an example of Edwardian Classical Revival architecture in Hong Kong. Today, it is used as an education centre for the aviary. [Wavell House, Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
Built in 1900’s, the three-storey Cassels Block was one of the officer residences in the former Victoria Barracks. After the site was handed over in 1979, Cassels Block was preserved and converted it into the Hong Kong Visual Arts Centre (香港視覺藝術中心) in 1992. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
Built in 1846, the preserved Flagstaff House is the oldest surviving Western building in Hong Kong. The Greek Revival building has long been the residence of the Commander of British force. Today, it houses the Museum of Teaware (茶具文物館). [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
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Adjacent to the Museum of Teaware stands it’s new wing. It is used to display antiques and house a tea shop. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
The water feature near the Supreme Court Road entrance has long been a popular selfie spot since early 1990’s. I. M. Pei’s Bank of China Headquarters stands prominently at the back. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
Full of Koi fish, turtles and frogs, the lily pond is often considered as the central focal point in Hong Kong Park. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
The pond is one of best place to photograph Paul Rudolph‘s Lippo Centre, the twin towers at the heart of modern Admiralty. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
An artificial waterfall and classical balustrade create a harmonic garden scenery at the heart of the park. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
Like many parks in Hong Kong, the artificial pond has become a place for irresponsible pet owners to abandon their turtles. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
With a backdrop of luxurious apartments and the Victoria Peak, the Edward Youde Aviary (尤德觀鳥園) stands in the midst of lush green woodlands in the Hong Kong Park. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
The Edward Youde Aviary (尤德觀鳥園) is the largest aviary in Southeast Asia. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2021]
Inside Edward Youde Aviary, a system of elevated boardwalk lead visitors into a artificial forest setting where exotic birds mainly from Indonesia live freely within the enclosure. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2021]
The aviary is home to a number of exotic birds from Southeast Asia. Critically endangered, it is believed that fewer than 100 Bali starling living are living in the wild. [Two Bali starling hopped around the feeding area over the wooden balustrade, Hong Kong Park, Central, 2021]
Just a short walk from Admiralty station, most bird photography enthusiasts can easily carry their telephoto lens to the aviary at Hong Kong Park. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2021]
Pheasants can also be found in the aviary. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2021]
Red lory is one of the many colourful birds found in the aviary. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2021]
The Olympic Square features an 880 people amphitheatre. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2021]
The “Fighting SARS Memorial Architectural Scene” is erected to commemorate the frontline healthcare workers who lose their lives in the SARS epidemic in 2003. The installation features bronze busts of eight sacrificed medical workers carved by artist artist Chu Tat-shing. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
105 steps will take visitors up to the Vantage Point for a panoramic view of the park and beyond. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
The Vantage Point offers a great lookout to the surrounding urban scenery of Admiralty and Central. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
Looking over Admiralty, the 5 star hotels above Pacific Place, Government Offices, and Lippo Centre line behind Hong Kong Park and its 1400 sq.m Forsgate Conservatory. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
Further west of Lippo Centre, the former Tamar Royal Navy base, Bank of America, Bank of China and Citibank Tower complete the skyline of Admiralty. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]
Right across Cotton Tree Road stands the beautiful Murray Hotel, a well known adaptive reuse project by Norman Foster. Built in 1969, the 27-storey government building was successfully converted into a 5-star hotel and opened in 2018. [Hong Kong Park, Central, 2020]