ultramarinus – beyond the sea

Posts tagged “birding

MORNING SAFARI, Udawalawe National Park, Sri Lanka, 2019.12.14

Day 10 (1 of 2).

There are 26 national parks in Sri Lanka, covering an area of 5,734 km², or slightly less than 9% of the country.  As a small nation, Sri Lanka has a diverse range of wildlife, from marine mammals to other big game.  The island also has one of the highest rates of biological endemism (16% of the fauna and 23% of flowering plants are endemic) in the world.  Having a chance to see Sri Lanka’s precious wildlife in its natural habitat should be a highlight for all visitors.

With several elephant and even one leopard sightings in our first drive, any wildlife that we saw in our second safari was a bonus.  Nonetheless, it was a pleasant experience to venture into the open wilderness early in the morning, when the air was cool and birds were at their most active.  As the day warmed up after 8am, most animals seemed to be hiding in the shade somewhere, except occasional elephants that were looking for other ways to cool themselves down.  The morning safari was the final act for us before moving on to the South Coast.

01Udawalawe Reservoir appeared in total tranquility at 6am.

02Again our jeep passed through the Udawalawe Reservoir before entering the park.

03Our morning safari began with the sighting of a golden jackal.  In both Hindu and Buddhist cultures, jackals are considered an intelligent and cunning animals.

05In a safari national park, one of the easiest places to spot wildlife is the vehicular path because of the lack of vegetation.

04A group of birds came together for morning choir.  Early morning, according to our driver, is the best time for birding.

08At the top of a tree, we spotted a pair of malabar pied hornbills.  Malabar pied hornbills are omnivorous.  Their diet ranges from fruits to small animals and insects.

09An adult female white bellied sea eagle can measure up to 90cm, with a wingspan of up to 2.2m long.

10Due to their high reproductive rate, good adaptability in different environments, and the diminishing of their natural predators such as leopards, jackals, mongooses, pythons, monitor lizards and eagles because of human activities, the population of peafowls has grown rapidly throughout the island.  With frequent damages to agricultural crops, the peafowls have become a headache for Sri Lankan farmers.  On the other hand, peafowls have considerably cultural significance for the Buddhist and Hindu, thus a protected species in Sri Lanka despite of their impact to the farmers.  For the Sinhalese, the peafowl is the third animal of the zodiac of Sri Lanka.

13Endemic to the island, Sri Lankan junglefowl is the national bird of the country.

16With a diet including small reptiles, amphibians, crabs, rodents and birds, white-throated kingfisher can be found throughout Asia.

11In a woodland, a group of Sri Lankan axis deer were resting under the shade.  As soon as they noticed our arrival, they immediately got up and walked away one by one.

12Out of the dozen of so Sri Lankan axis deer, we only noticed one with horns.

14Once again we bumped into a Bengal monitor lizard.  The one we saw was about 1.5m long.

17Of course, no visit to the Udawalawe would be completed without meeting the Sri Lankan elephants.

15In both safari visits, we had seen both male and female Sri Lankan elephants of various ages and sizes.

06In a group of Sri Lankan elephants, we also spotted two babies who were busy suckling milk from their mothers.

18Near the end of our morning safari, we had an encounter with a large male elephant.

20We saw him stopping at a water pond and splashed mud water onto his body using his trunk.  According to our driver, the elephant was “applying sunscreen” with the mud.  Apart from sun protection, the mud also protects him from parasite.  The evaporation of the mud would also cool off his skin.

21After exiting from the park, we passed by Udawalawe Reservoir one final time.  This time, we were fortunate to see an Sri Lankan elephant bathing in the water.


AFTERNOON SAFARI, Udawalawe National Park, Sri Lanka, 2019.12.13

Day 9 (4 of 4).

Udawalawe National Park is often considered to be the best place for elephant sighting outside of Africa.  Advertised for 100% guaranteed elephant sighting, Udawalawe should not disappoint anyone who come for the biggest mammals on land.  For other animals, especially large mammals like leopards or sloth bears, super good luck and an experienced guide/driver are probably needed for any chance of success.  The park is also a fine venue for bird sightings, with both permanent and migratory species.

We didn’t have a whole lot of wild safari experience other than the Brazilian Pantanal.  Unlike Pantanal in Brazil where we could choose between boat, 4×4 vehicle, or even a morning safari hike, Udawalawe National Park could only be visited by 4×4 vehicles.  All 4×4 vehicles enter the park from one entrance, and most tours would start either at 6am or 2pm, and last for 4 hours.  Unlike the famous Yala National Park in Southern Sri Lanka where all visitors flock to chase after the elusive leopards and as soon as one leopard is spotted all vehicles would rush to the same spot, 4×4 drivers at Udawalawe tend to disperse into different areas of the park.  The first safari tour we had at Udawalawe was a afternoon drive.

01Sri Lankan elephant is usually one of the first large animals to be spotted in the park.

04Sri Lankan elephant is the largest of the three subspecies of Asian elephants.

07Native to the island, Sri Lankan elephant has a widespread distribution in the country.

08With a population of 2500 to 4000c Sri Lankan elephants have been listed endangered on IUCN’s Red List since 1986.

03Oriental garden lizards are commonly found throughout much of Asia.

09The oriental garden lizard can change its colours.  During mating season, a male lizard changes its head and shoulders to orange or crimson, and its throat to black.

05Much larger than oriental garden lizard, the Bengal monitor lizards can grow up to 175cm long.

02Known by their rich colours and predominant diet of flying insects like bees and wraps, the green bee-eaters are common in the park.

06Reside in India, Sri Lanka, and much of Southeast Asia, the changeable hawk eagle is also known as crest hawk due to its feature on the head.  They are medium size birds of prey, and are usually solitary except in breeding periods.

11The number of Indian peafowls or peacocks (male) we have seen in Udawalawe was probably ten times more than the total number of times that we had ever seen these birds in the past.  Peacocks dancing, eating, running, and even flying, males, females, or juveniles, you name it, we have seen it.

10The steady supply of water of the reservoir is probably the main reason why wild animals gather in Udawalawe National Park.

12Even with their distinctive curved horns, no one knows for sure whether these wild water buffalos are truly wild, or if they are descendants of domestic buffaloes.  With about 3,400 across the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, wild water buffalo has been listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1986.

13Painted storks can be found in wetlands throughout tropical Asia.

14Native to the island, the endangered Sri Lankan leopard has a population of 750-900.  Spotting one of the park’s 10-12 leopards was like winning the jackpot, given the reserve has 30,821 hectares of land (more than 5 times the area of Manhattan Island).

15Usually live in herds, the Sri Lankan axis deer or Ceylon spotted deer once roam freely across the dry zone of the island.  Now their conservation status is considered as vulnerable.

16Towards the end of our tour, a curious Sri Lankan elephants followed us and get pretty close to our vehicle.

17Before leaving the park, we had a unique encounter with two Sri Lankan elephants who greeted each other with their trunks and made a whole lot of sounds.

18The greeting gesture of the two Sri Lankan elephants seemed friendly, as if a person was hugged by another person.

19After the passionate change of the two elephants, one of the two elephants seemed to be interested in our vehicle and stayed much longer.

20Near the main park exit, we spotted a curious mongoose climbing out from a drainage channel.  It stayed just for a split second and dashed out of our sight.