ultramarinus – beyond the sea

Posts tagged “agriculture

ARRIVING IN FURANO (富良野), Hokkaido (北海道), Japan, 2019.06.20

Day 6 (3/3).

A sudden downpour greeted our arrival to the farming community as we left Hoshino Resorts Tomamu and entered Minamifurano  or South Furano (南富良野).  A long and winding road cut through fields of rice paddies, wheat and corn, and passed by rows after rows of farming greenhouses against the backdrop of Tokachi Mountain Range (十勝岳).  Further afield, rolling fields of summer flowers had yet reached their peak moment of summer blossom.  We could imagine that at its peak in mid July, these fields could well be covered in rainbow colours: sunflower, poppies, lilies, and most famous of all, different types of lavender.  At one point, we stopped the car right by a small country road, just to taste the sweetness of nature and feel the mountain air after the rain.  Mist rose from the distant mountains beyond farming fields, making a perfect and dreamy picture of Hokkaido countryside. Welcome to Furano!

Located in the heart of Hokkaido Island, Furano is (富良野) a sleepy town about 100km inland from the sea, enjoying a continental climate that sees heavy and powdery snowfall in winter.  Like Niseko, Furano is a popular skiing resort in winter.  During summer, Furano is a rural wonderland famous for its farmlands and vineyards, especially its rolling hills of flowers that includes the iconic lavender.  Drawing large amount of Japanese and Chinese tourists, summer flowers, especially lavender, have imprinted a vivid postcard image in visitors’ mind even before they arrive in Hokkaido.  For the Japanese, the works of scriptwriter Sō Kuramoto (倉本 聰) have presented the beauty of Furano to everyone in the nation in the past 40 years, marking the relative sleepy town in Central Hokkaido onto Japan’s tourist map.

DSC_5751We stopped the car at a small country road to inhale our first breathe of fresh air from Furano.

DSC_5752Furano is well known for its fine agricultural produce.

IMG_9734Large plastic greenhouses could be seen in many areas around Furano.

IMG_9743No matter where in Japan, rice paddies is often the dominate landscape.

IMG_9746In Hokkaido, wheat is also a main staple food for noodles and bread.

IMG_9749In Central Furano, a complex of four retail buildings known as Furano Marche introduces local produce, snacks and souvenir for visitors and foreigners.

IMG_9750We got ourselves some food for a light dinner.

IMG_9753We got ourselves potato fries, hamburger and fried chicken (all ingredients from the region) for dinner.

IMG_9758From Furano Marche, we had the opportunity to try the local sweet white corn, which could be consumed raw.

DSC_5754In Furano, we stayed at Pension Yamasan in the village of Nakafurano (中富良野), the home of the famous lavender farms like Farm Tomita and Saika-no-Sato.

IMG_9762Dried lavender is used as decorations and natural air freshener.

IMG_9763We were free to use the dining hall for breakfast and evening television.

IMG_9764The common area of Pension Yamasan is full of the owner’s character.

IMG_0040Situated on a hill across from Mount Tokachi, Pension Yamasan offered us pleasant view of the mountain range and fields of Nakafurano.

DSC_5796For visitors without their own wheels, railway is their best bet for reaching the lavender farms in Nakafurano.

DSC_5798After the rain, Furano River was a little muddy at Nakafurano.

DSC_5797Despite we were a month too early to see the lavender in full blossom, other summer flowers were indeed everywhere in Nakafurano.

 

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HOKKAIDO ROAD TRIP, Hokkaido (北海道), Japan, June 15-25, 2019

Tsuyu (梅雨), the rain season, begins to hit Okinawa in May and gradually makes its way north to the rest of Japan until the end of June.  During the wet season, rainy and cloudy weather affects the entire country except Hokkaido, Japan’s second largest island north of the main Honshu Island.  The seismic active island is 3.6% smaller than Ireland, with a climate significantly cooler than the rest of Japan.  Seeking for a pleasant getaway from Hong Kong’s humid and hot summer, we picked Hokkaido as the destination for our 11-day vacation from 15th to 25th of June.  Traveling in the remote national parks and rural countryside of Hokkaido, hiring a car was a necessity.  The Hokkaido journey was our first road trip in Japan.

Known as Japan’s last true wilderness, Shiretoko National Park (知床国立公園) is the natural haven where Brown Bears and Blakiston Fish Owls ruled the primeval forests and Orcas, Minke and Sperm Whales roamed the waters of Nemuro Strait.  With fantastic natural scenery, wildlife and seafood to offer, this easternmost part of Hokkaido topped our priority list in the travel itinerary.  Next in the journey took us to the spectacular volcanoes of Akan Mashu National Park (阿寒摩周国立公園), where we came close to Japan’s clearest water at caldera Lake Mashu (摩周湖) and the fantastic onsen and fly fishing hot spot of Lake Akan (阿寒湖).  While the lavender fields of Furano (富良野) and Biei (美瑛) had yet reached the peak bloom moment, the ultra fertile soil below the Tokachi Volcanic Group (十勝火山群) treated us with some of the best bread, corn, potatoes, asparagus, melons and milk that we ever had in our lives.  Despite far away from Tokyo and Osaka, the architectural magic of Tadao Ando (安藤忠雄) in Hokkaido satisfied our thirst of contemporary design and aesthetics.  Back in Obihiro (帯広), Otaru (小樽) and Sapporo (札幌), historic traces of early pioneers and contemporary dessert shops and local eateries brought us back to delightful charm of urban Japan.  What’s more?  Day after day of mouthwatering seafood, fresh produces, good coffee, and lovely patisseries reminded us how wonderful our world could be, when the water is clean, soil is rich, forests are healthy and people are friendly.  Thank you Hokkaido.  You have truly touched our hearts.

maps 2Located north of Honshu Island, Hokkaido is the second largest island in Japan.

maps 1Flying in from Tokyo Haneda, our Hokkaido journey began from Memanbetsu (女満別空港) near the Shiretoko Peninsula.  After more than 1,181km of driving, we arrived at Otaru and Sapporo at the western side of the island.

DSC_4258This black hatchback hybrid Toyota Prius c (Toyota Aqua in Japan) provided us the means of transport from east to west across Hokkaido.

DSC_4490After 2 days of rain and wind, we finally had a glimpse of the active volcano of Mount Rausu (羅臼岳), the tallest peak in Shiretoko Peninsula.

DSC_5154The greatest experience we took away from Shiretoko was the close encounter with a pod of orcas in the Nemuro Strait.

DSC_5307The Mashu Lake (摩周湖) offered us a peaceful sunrise at 3:30am.

DSC_5666Under the shadow of Mount Oakan (雄阿寒岳), dozens of fly fishermen stepped into the crystal water of Lake Akan (阿寒湖) to test their luck.

DSC_5751Farms and greenhouses were washed with heavy rain as we entered into Furano (富良野).

DSC_5893Still at least half a month to go before the peak season of lavender blossom, visitors were enjoying themselves at a relatively less crowded Farm Tomita in Nakafurano.

DSC_6040Compared with rainbow flower fields, we loved the wheat fields at Biei the most.

DSC_6183Tadao Ando’s Chapel on the Water has been famous in the designer’s world since the 1980s.

DSC_6282The Hill of Buddha is the latest addition in Hokkaido by Tadao Ando.

DSC_6466At Yoichi Distillery (余市蒸溜所), whiskey has been produced since 1934.

DSC_6538Saturdays Chocolate in Sapporo is one of the many excellent local eateries and cafes that we visited in the journey.

IMG_9267Last but not least, Hokkaido offered us the best seafood and dessert that we ever had as far as we could remember.  Let’s begin to tell the story of our journey!


PIONEER OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AND NATURE CONSERVATION, Kadoorie Farm (嘉道理農場), Hong Kong

On the northern slope of Tai Mo Shan (大帽山) at a place called Pak Ngau Shek (白牛石) in the area of Lam Tsuen (林村), 148 hectare of organic farms, botanical gardens and mature forests terracing up to the summit of Kwun Yum Shan (觀音山) reveal over half a century of efforts by the Kadoorie Farm (嘉道理農場).  Established in 1956, Kadoorie Farm has always stood at the forefront of Hong Kong’s agriculture, experimenting on new techniques and providing agricultural aid to farmers in need of support.  In 1951, the Kadoorie brothers (Horace and Lawrence) established the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association (KAAA) in an attempt to help the sudden influx of Mainland farmers into Hong Kong during the Chinese Civil War in the late 1940’s.  They picked Pak Ngau Shek (白牛石) near Lam Tsuen (林村) to establish an agricultural facility engaging in experiments on profitable and effecting farming and animal breeding, and training the new farmers with their developed techniques.  Today, Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden (嘉道理農場暨植物園) diversifies their effort to promote organic farming, sustainable living, nature conservation and education.  They also run extensive rehabilitation program for wild animals in Hong Kong.

DSC_8597Linked by 9 km of roads and 8 km of trails, various highlights of the Kadoorie Farm spread over the slope of Kwun Yum Shan (觀音山).

DSC_8603One of the big highlights at the lower section of Kadoorie Farm is the “Eco Garden” (生機園), exhibiting different types of self sufficient and compact farming in a community scale.

DSC_8607The garden presents natural and organic ways to maintain soil’s nutrients and insect control, and the best combination of vegetables for each season.

DSC_8611Other than its freshness and taste, the organic vegetables such as the purple cabbages are also beautiful.

DSC_8618Spherical bird scarers are hung over a cluster of rainbow chards in the Eco Garden.

DSC_8658A wavy fence separates the Eco Garden with the other terraced farms and botanic gardens.

DSC_8599Other than organic farming, more innovative planting techniques are also examined at the Eco Garden.  Some farming techniques that requires less space or soil may suit urban living well.

DSC_8631At the Piers Jacobs Wildlife Sanctuary, native mammals such as a Barking Deer or Muntjac (麂) have been rescued as an orphan and raised in the sanctuary.

DSC_8641The wild boar is also another rescued orphan at the sanctuary.  Both wild boars and barking deer can be found in the forests in and around Kadoorie Farm.

DSC_8659In the old days, pig breeding was an important work at the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association (KAAA).  Today a few Da Hua Bai Pigs (大花白豬) are kept at the farm for educational purposes.

DSC_8671Amphibians and reptiles are both vulnerable groups of wildlife in Hong Kong due to habitat loss.  Kadoorie Farm has a few of the native species at the Amphibian and Reptile House and Reptile Garden.

DSC_8674Interesting pavilions and artworks are all over the farm, including a dragon boat pigeon house.

DSC_8687And also the fish mosaic at the Cascade Garden near the Chicken House.

DSC_8709As the farm terraces up the hillside of Kwun Yum Shan (觀音山), the view to the surrounding landscape becomes more spectacular.

DSC_8721The Butterfly Path winds up the hill through dense forests and open terraces, following part of an old trail which led the locals up the hill of Kwun Yum Shan (觀音山) for a religious blessing.

DSC_8700In order to preserve the natural feel, there is minimal modern safety infrastructure provided at the Butterfly Path.

DSC_87329 km of roads circulate up and down the Kwun Yum Shan (觀音山), going through some densely forested areas, the habitat for some native species in Hong Kong, such as the barking deer.

DSC_8714… and the wild boar.

DSC_8750At 550m above sea level, the summit of Kwun Yum Shan (觀音山) is the highest point in Kadoorie Farm.  For centuries, farmers came up to the summit to seek blessings from the goddess of Kwun Yum.

DSC_8752The summit of Kwun Yum Shan (觀音山) allows visitors to have fine view of the New Territories and even Shenzhen on a fine and clear day.

DSC_8757The summit of Kwun Yum Shan (觀音山) is at 1812 ft, or 550 m.

DSC_8759Kwun Yum Shan (觀音山) is sandwiched between Tai To Yan (大刀屻) to the north and Tai Mo Shan (大帽山) to the south.

DSC_8767Heading downhill, visitors can either take a shuttle bus or walk down a winding road.

DSC_8829Along the downhill road, sounds of monkeys can often be heard.  Occasionally visitors may spot monkeys jumping from one tree to another.


YI O (二澳) & TAI O (大澳) AT NIGHT, Western Lantau Part 2, Hong Kong

The trail from Fan Lau to Yi O was less well maintained than the path we walked in the morning.  It took us about 40 minutes to walk from Fan Lau Sai Wan (分流西灣) to the farming village of Yi O (二澳).  This was our second visit of Yi O.  A little over two years ago, we came to Yi O and found a beautiful valley where a few farmers trying hard to reintroduce rice farming back to Lantau Island.  Yi O, a farming village with over two hundred years of history and over a thousand villagers in its heyday, became an abandoned village in the 1970s when the last of its inhabitants moved out to the city.  In 2013, a farming cooperative secured a 30-year lease after negotiations with the original four clans of villagers to re-cultivate the land of Yi-O for organic rice paddies.  Since then more lands were cultivated and more helpers were hired each year.  Over 10% of Yi-O’s land had been worked on to develop the farm-to-table business.  In the past, growing rice in a constantly lightly flooded plot in front of village homes was a self-sustainable way of living for Yi-O inhabitants.  Nowadays, the cooperative tried to revive this method, but were still experimenting with more efficient ways to yield more crops.  Under the late afternoon sun, the golden rice paddies revealed a lovely rural dream.  In the era of enormous concerns regarding food safety, the farming experiment of Yi-O might prove crucial for Hong Kong to reduce some degree of reliance on food imports.

DSC_6031Yi O lies in the embrace of lush-green mountains from both sides.

DSC_6036The golden rice paddies looked promising.  Perhaps it was almost harvest time for these fields.  Because of its small output, it isn’t easy to buy a bag of rice from Yi O.  The farming cooperative has a small shop in Tai O to promote their products.

DSC_6045We found our way to the main path in the middle of Yi O, and continued to walk north towards Yi O Bay.

DSC_6049Winding through the village of Yi O, we could still encounter a number of abandoned homes and construction equipment.

DSC_6064The sun was low and so as the tide when we reached Yi O Bay.  The tidal flat is the ideal place for mangrove trees to thrive.

DSC_6073As we left Yi O Bay and headed towards Tai O, a few dogs came the opposite direction towards Yi O.  One by one the dogs walked across the mudflat and disappear into the village of Yi O.

DSC_6075The mudflat of Yi O Bay faces north towards Pearl River Estuary.

DSC_6084Reflection of the western sun and distant mountains and the incoming tidal water on the mudflat of Yi O Bay was quite picturesque.

DSC_6116The sun was fading fast behind the silhouette of mountains adjacent to Yi O.

DSC_6140The flag of Yi O flew high at a nearby concrete pier.

DSC_6173Despite the hazy weather, the sunset over Pearl River Estuary was quite spectacular.

DSC_6188About an hour after we left Yi O, we arrived at the small village of Fan Kwai Tong (番鬼塘), across the bay from Tai O.

DSC_6194We walked across the Tai O Promenade from Fan Kwai Tong (番鬼塘) to Tai O (大澳).  The tide was coming in as the last twilight faded.

DSC_6205In early evening, the popular Tai O wasn’t as busy as we thought.  Without the tourist groups, it was our first time to experience the charm of Tai O as a tranquil fishing village but not a busy tourist trap with vendors trying to sell you all kinds of souvenirs and snacks.

DSC_6206Without the tourists, we could leisurely admire the beauty of the fishing community.  After a long day of hike, we decided to have dinner in Tai O before returning to the city centre.

DSC_6209As we entered Tai O, vendors selling dried seafood to tourists were about to close their stalls.

DSC_6215We soon reached the iconic suspended bridge of Tai O.  The festive lights from the Chinese New Year were still up.

DSC_6227We crossed the suspended bridge to enter the main part of the fishing village.

DSC_6231Without the noise from tourists, Tai O was quite peaceful.  Many inhabitants were preparing dinner in their stilt houses.

DSC_6233We passed by an interesting shrine dedicated to the deity of the local land.

DSC_6237Tai O Community Centre is the main venue for cultural activities at the fishing village.

DSC_6240We passed by a number of shrimp paste shops and manufacturers, an industry that Tai O has been famous for many generations.  Many of the shops were already closed for the day.

DSC_6251After wandering through Tai O, we ended up at Tai O Heritage Hotel.  The hotel was established in 2009, after extensive renovations were carried out for the historical police station built in 1902.  We dined at the glass roofed restaurant Tai O Lookout in the hotel.  The food was nothing spectacular but the historical setting of the complex and the airy atmosphere of the glassy building offered us a pleasant experience to finish the day.

DSC_6266After dinner, we strolled through the village once again heading for the bus station at the village entrance.

DSC_6282The tide was much higher than an hour or two ago, and so as the moon.

DSC_6296All the stores near the bus station were closed.  We waited for about ten minutes before boarding a Lantau bus for Tung Chung at North Lantau, where we would switch to the MTR, Hong Kong’s super efficient metro system, to return home.


FARMING TERRACES, Colca Canyon, Peru

We should have spent more time in the Colca Canyon.  Our 2-day local tour allowed us very little time to enjoy the natural scenery of the magnificent valley, except stopping at lookouts along the way to and from the Cruz del Condor.  If time allowed, we could have done one of the hiking tours that reach the very bottom of the canyon.  At twice the depth of Arizona’s Grand Canyon, the bottom of Colca Canyon is much warmer and more humid than the top.  The Colca Canyon is largely covered by pre-Inca farming terraces.  For over a thousand years, Andean farmers constructed agricultural terraces to cultivate potatoes, maizes, and other crops in the shallow soil on mountain slopes.

After Cruz del Condor, our tour bus stopped a couple of times along the road for us to appreciate the Colca Canyon.  Farming terraces carved into mountain slope, but not all were planted with crops.  In fact, many terraces, especially the higher ones furthest away from the valley, looked like as if they had been abandoned for centuries.  The stepping profile of the abandoned terraces revealed a fading trace of human manipulations to the rough and mountainous terrain along the Colca River in precolonial times.

It was already noontime by the time we arrived at Chivay.  After lunch, we bid farewell with the rest of the tour group who would return to Arequipa.  We, on the other hand, would switch bus and continue our journey over the Andean highlands to the city of Puno, where we would begin our next phase of our Peruvian journey, the Lake Titicaca.

1Locals at a mountain village at the Colca Canyon.

2Agricultural fields on a plateau in the  Colca Valley.

3[scanned positive slide] Agricultural fields and farming terraces beyond.

4[scanned positive slide] Agricultural fields on a plateau overlooking the depth of Colca Canyon.

5Cactus is common in Colca Canyon.

6Farming terraces were everywhere.

7[scanned positive slide] Farming terraces all the way down to Colca River.

8Farming terraces of Colca Canyon.

9[scanned positive slide] Farming terraces of Colca Canyon.

* * *

Read other posts on Peru Trip 2010

LIMA
1. Peru Trip 2010
2.  Bumpy Arrival, Lima & Arequipa, Peru
AREQUIPA & COLCA CANYON
3.  Monasterio de Santa Catalina, Arequipa, Peru
4.  Plaza de Armas, Arequipa, Peru
5.  Volcanoes and Vicuna, Pampa Canahuas Natural Reserve, Patahuasi, and Patapampa, Peru
6.  Yanque, Colca Canyon, Peru
7. Cruz del Condor, Colca Canyon, Peru
8. Farming Terraces, Colca Canyon, Peru
PUNO & TITICACA
9. Road to Titicaca, Colca Canyon to Puno, Peru
10. Afternoon on Taquile Island, Titicaca, Peru
11. Morning on Taquile, Titicaca, Peru
12. Inka Express, Puno to Cusco, Peru
CUSCO & SACRED VALLEY
13. Pisac & Ollantaytambo, Sacred Valley, Peru
14. Salinas de Maras, & Moray, Sacred Valley, Peru
15. Lucuma Milkshake & Plaza de Armas, Cusco, Peru
16. Saksaywaman, Cusco, Peru
INCA TRAIL
17. KM 82 to Wayllabamba, Inca Trail, Peru
18. Wayllabamba to Pacamayo, Inca Trail, Peru
19. Pacasmayo to Winay Wayna, Inca Trail, Peru
20. Winay Wayna to Machu Picchu, Inca Trail, Peru
21. Machu Piccu, Inca Trail, Peru
22. Machu Picchu in Black and White, Inca Trail, Peru
23. Afterthought, Inca Trail, Peru
LAST DAY IN CUSCO & LIMA
24. Farewell to the Incas, Cusco, Peru
25. Last Day in Peru, Lima, Peru


MA PO PO: Sustainable Future in Fanling, Hong Kong

We almost forgot Hong Kong still has a considerable amount of arable land suitable for farming until we visited Ma Po Po (馬寶寶), the community farm at Ma Shi Po Village (馬屎埔) in Fanling (粉嶺). In recent months, the government’s proposal to develop rural areas and farming villages into high dense residential communities in Northeast North Territories has became a controversial topic in the city.

1Ma Po Po Community Farm is located at Ma Shi Po Village in Fanling.

2A group of youthful artists from YMCA enlivened the village with beautiful wall paintings. At village entrance, we were welcomed by this handsome cat farmer.

1aHanging on the metal gate of Ma Po Po Community Farmer’s Market is a handmade signage. Ma Po Po literally means “Baby Horse”. The founders of the farmer’s market hope that everyone would treat the gradually disappearing farmland with care and love as if their baby.

3Every two weeks a community market is held at Ma Po Po, selling cook-to-order snacks and bread, organic vegetables, biodegradable home products, handcrafts, souvenirs, etc.

4The farmers market at Ma Po Po offers some of the best produce in the entire city.

7Developing the north region of New Territories is a controversial topic in recent months.  Many farmers, including the villagers at Ma Po Po, are facing a real risk of eviction.  The Hong Kong government favors urban development over agriculture, and doesn’t seem to bother finding a balanced solution that encourages the coexistence of farming and urban development.

5“I love my home, to North Fanling, from Hong Kong citizens,” the banner says.

6Fresh bread was made from these communal ovens.

8A month-old puppy was looking for a new home.

9Lego display of recent news incident in support of the Umbrella Revolution (Occupy Central Movement).

9a0Many people like us who came visit the farmer’s market would join a brief local to learn more about the Ma Shi Po Village.

9a
Wall mural depicting the snacks that once sold at this village’s grocery store. The elderly shop owner is still living in this house, but his tiny shop couldn’t stand the contest with the chain supermarkets outside the village.

10Simple wall murals are common in Ma Shi Po depicting original farming scenes.  Since the residential towers were built across the street from the village, sunlight exposure to certain farmlands is greatly affected.  Some owners switch to growing fruit trees instead.

11Raising poultry was once part of the village life.  However, we were told that in recent years the government has imposed heavy restrictions on raising poultry.  Today, free range chickens and ducks can only be seen on wall murals captured by the young artists.

12Hong Kong’s climate is suitable for farming all year round.  Green vegetables dominate the farms during winter, while melons and fruits wait for their chance in summertime.

13
The guide presented a bucket of soy pulp collected from a tofu shops nearby.  Many types of organic waste are being collected from restaurants and markets in nearby neighborhoods to support organic farming.  Ma Po Po aims to demonstrate a perfect cycle of co-existence among organic farmers, restaurants and the local communities.  Not only does their collection/compost/farming cycle create some of the best produce in the city, it also indicates a strategy that partially alleviates the burden of organic waste.

14The last part of the tour was to demonstrate about how the collected organic waste is turned into organic fertilizer.  Removing the plastic wrap, our guide showed us a compost mount, in which dry leaves and branches were mixed with small amount of organic waste such as fish bones.

15Farms at Ma Shi Po Village are usually small in scale.  Each family decides on their crop selection and farming methods.  Even the bird repellent method is unique for each farm.

15bPapaya is common in rural Hong Kong.

15cThese mandarin oranges seem to remind everyone that Chinese New Year is just around the corner.

16Not everyone in Ma Shi Po maintains a farm.

17Many original farmlands and houses have been vacant or sold to large developers.  Large developers then come and fence off the properties under their control.  After months of neglect these lands would soon turn into overgrown wastelands. Some people have proposed to rent the abandoned farmlands from the developers while the land was left idling.  Their proposals were rejected by the developers.

17aBanners in protest of earlier land bidding exercises when farm lands were sold off to developers.

18Ng Tung River dominates the scenery north of Ma Shi Po. This river has once been the reason for the founding the farming community.

19While exiting Ma Shi Po, we could clearly see the overwhelming residential development just across the street.  Without character, memories, and living traditions, these highrise developments are efficient machines to house a population made up mainly with people from elsewhere in the city.

20We brought back lots of fresh vegetables from Ma Po Po.  They were definitely the sweetest vegetables we’ve ever had in recent months. Now, a visit to Ma Po Po Farmer’s Market has become our weekly ritual. People who live in the Fanling area are lucky to live so close to this terrific organic farm.  We believe in balanced development.  The coexistence of Ma Po Po and the surrounding neighborhoods shows us a good example of what a sustainable future may look like for generations to come.