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Posts tagged “百德新街

THE RISE AND FALL OF LITTLE GINZA, Causeway Bay (銅鑼灣), Hong Kong

It is no coincidence that Hong Kong was able to establish itself as an international shopping destination. Without sales tax and tariffs on most goods, geographical proximity to China and other manufacturing Asian countries, decades of expertise in sourcing, trading and global logistics, large demand on products from all over the world and at every price ranges, all contribute to the relatively low consumer prices and high merchandise variety in Hong Kong. Bilingual with English and Chinese also help to cement Hong Kong as a popular shopping paradise for international tourists, receiving over 65 million visitors a year (2018). To talk about the development of the retail scene in Hong Kong, it is impossible not to touch upon Causeway Bay, the city’s prime shopping district. And to talk about the emergence of Causeway Bay, the story should trace back to 1960.

On 3rd of November 1960, thousands of spectators arrived at the intersection of Great George Street (記利佐治街) and Paterson Street (百德新街) to witness a 4000-guest cocktail party for the grand opening of Daimaru (大丸). Back then, little people would foresee that a new upscale Japanese department store in the warehouse dominated East Point (東角) would rapidly and dramatically transform the urban landscape into a vibrant shopping hub that we now call Causeway Bay. It is no exaggeration to say that the arrival of Daimaru was revolutionary to most Hongkongers: 400 staff trained in Japanese etiquette, row of staff bowing at entrance to greet customers, customer-first services, fixed prices, delivery services, split payments, trial eats, attractive displays, soft background music, facial care services, 60% products made in Japan, and even ladies dressed in kimono to serve customers for trial makeups. These may sound no big deal today, but in 1960 the innovative shopping experience has become an instant legend, drawing almost 100,000 customers on the second day of business. After Daimaru, the next two decades saw another three Japanese department stores arriving in Causeway Bay. In its heyday, over 500,000 sf of retail space in Causeway Bay were split among the four department stores: Daimaru (大丸 1960 – 1998), Matsuzakaya (松坂屋 1975 – 1998), Mitsukoshi (三越 1981 – 2006) and SOGO (崇光 1985 – present). From then on, Causeway Bay has become the most essential shopping district in Hong Kong nicknamed as Little Ginza. The Japanese department stores have become synonymous to fancy home appliances, trendy fashion, delightful toys and mouthwatering food-hall, just as Daimaru has become synonymous to Causeway Bay, where public minibuses designated to the area would simply put Daimaru’s Chinese name dai yuen (大丸) as the destination.

Japan’s “Lost Decade” economic stagnation in 1990’s and the shift of consumer culture towards shopping malls significantly affect the Japanese department stores. After 38 years, Daimaru ended its business in Hong Kong in 1998, the same year when Matsuzakaya also closed its store at Patterson Street. Mitsukoshi was doing fine in Causeway Bay, generating 40% of its overseas earning from Hong Kong alone, but was forced to exit the city in 2006 due to demolition of its host building, Hennessy Centre, to make way for the much taller Hysan Place Shopping Centre. Thanks to a takeover by a local billionaire, SOGO remains as today’s anchoring landmark at the iconic street crossing that defines the very heart of Causeway Bay. With Asia’s largest LED screen installed in 2017, SOGO and the little triangular patch of pedestrian entrance forecourt remain as the most popular meeting spot in the area. Apart from financial crisis and change of consumer taste, one of the biggest issues behind the department stores’ inevitable demise was probably Hong Kong’s skyrocketing real estate price and retail rent in the past two decades, especially in Causeway Bay. In 2011, a 1000 sf (plus 600 sf mezzanine) noodle shop near Times Square was sold for a whopping HK$100m (US$ 12.7m). Without factoring in salary and utility expenses, the shop would need to sell 500 noodle bowls each day for 19 years in order to see the same HK$100m on their balance sheet. Eight years later in 2019, the same retail space changed hands again for HK$180m (US$ 22.9m). 2019 also saw Causeway Bay having the world’s most expensive retail rent for the sixth time since 2013, at US$2,671/ sf annually. In comparison, Upper 5th Avenue in New York was at US$2,250, London’s New Bond Street at US$1,744, Paris’ Avenue des Champs Elysées at US$1,519, Milan’s Via Monte Napoleone at US$1,466, and Tokyo’s Ginza at US$1,219. At such rate, not many shops, especially a multi-level department store, can manage a consistent revenue to commit a long term lease. Interestingly, the rent has dramatically dropped in recent years due to the pandemic.

From the rise of Daimaru, to establishing Causeway Bay as a shopping paradise and the world’s highest retail rental market, to the declining retail scene due to overinflated rents and recent pandemic, a cycle might have come to a full circle. Not only did the Japanese department stores help to define the development and urban landscape of Causeway Bay, they also contribute on establishing Hong Kong’s consumer culture that worth US$5.2 billion a month (2016), and successful build up Hongkongers’ common interest on Japanism, from consumer products and hospitality to food and culture. A generation has gone by since the closure of Daimaru, Japan remains as the no. 1 travel destination for Hongkongers, even for youngsters who have never experienced Little Ginza in Hong Kong.

A shopping centre known as Fashion Walk now occupies the space of the former Daimaru. [Photo: Great George Street, 2020]
Across from Fashion Walk, another shopping centre Causeway Place (銅鑼灣地帶) [Photo: Great George Street, 2020]
Diagonally across from the former Daimaru stood the site of the former Matsuzakaya (松坂屋) Department Store. The multi level space is now home to a flagship store of H&M. [Photo: Intersection of Great George Street and Paterson Street, 2022]
Just 30m west of Fashion Walk, the entrance of SOGO Department Store at East Point Road and the busy pedestrian crossing in front have become the most iconic urban scenery of Causeway Bay. [Photo: Hennessy Road/ Yee Wo Street crossing, 2020]
Outside of SOGO, a large crowd gathers in front of the LED screen of Island Beverley Shopping Mall (金百利中心) on 30th of April 2022 to celebrate the birthday of Keung To’s (姜濤), a local celebrity from the popular boy group Mirror. [Photo: East Point Road, 2022]
The streets surrounding SOGO are some of the busiest streets in the area. [Photo: East Point Road, 2020]
In the years before the pandemic, only shops catered for Mainland Chinese tourists, such as pharmacies and jewellery shops, could afford the outrageous high rents surrounding SOGO. [Photo: Lockhart Road, 2014]
From SOGO, the pedestrianized East Point Road extends below Laforet (東角) shopping centre to World Trade Shopping Centre and the former Excelsior Hotel. [Photo: East Point Road, 2014]
Billboards and LED screens are everywhere in the area surrounding SOGO. [Photo: East Point Road, 2014]
Measured 72m x 19m with a surface area larger than five full sized tennis courts, the LED screen on the building facade of SOGO Department Store facing Hennessy Road is the largest LED outdoor screen in the Asia Pacific. [Photo: bend of Hennessy Road and Yee Wo Street, 2020]
SOGO’s large LED screen can be fully appreciated further down the road from Yee Wo Street. [Photo: Yee Wo Street, 2020]
Replacing the 41-storey Hennessy Centre (興利中心) where the former Mitsukoshi Department Store was located with today’s Hysan Place was a bet on the success of a vertical shopping centre. [Photo: Hennessy Road, 2022]
Appeared as facade features facing Hennessy Road, the express escalators provide convenient access to different vertical shopping zones in Hysan Place. [Photo: Hysan Place, 2022]
Look down from Hysan Place, the forecourt of SOGO and the Hennessy Road/ Yee Wo Street crossing always look busy. [Photo: Hysan Place, 2022]
Most of the building facade of Hysan Place on Hennessy Road is reserved for the office lobby entrances. [Photo: Hennessy Road, 2021]
Social unrest and the pandemic in recent years have greatly impacted the retail business in Causeway Bay. [Photo: former Nike flagship store at intersection of Hennessy Road and Percival Street, 2022]
Situated across Paterson Street from the former Daimaru Department Store, the 4-storey Don Don Donki at Pearl City was the most recent introduction to the area. Opened in 2020 during the pandemic, the Japanese discount shop seems to be quite confident in Causeway Bay’s retail scene in the near future. [2022]


Wandering the most popular shopping streets of Causeway Bay, it is impossible not to stumble upon streets or places that are named after either a tai-pan (business executive 大班) of Jardine Matheson (怡和洋行) or the family of Lee Hysan (利希慎). Paterson Street (百德新街), Jardine’s Bazaar (渣甸街), Jardine’s Crescent (渣甸坊), Yee Wo Street (怡和街), Percival Street (波斯富街), Matheson Street (勿地臣街), Keswick Street (敬誠街) all refer to the former executives of Jardine Matheson, the giant enterprise that is involved in almost all major business sectors one could think of in Hong Kong; while Lee Garden Road (利園山道), Hysan Avenue (希慎道), Lan Fong Road (蘭芳道), Hysan Place (希慎廣場), Lee Garden One to Six (利園一至六期), and Lee Theatre Plaza (利舞臺廣場) can be traced back to the family of Lee Hysan, the biggest landlord of today’s Causeway Bay. And, what did Jardine Matheson and Lee Hysan had in common apart from owning most of Causeway Bay for the last 180 years? The answer is OPIUM.

No matter we like it or not, the founding of Hong Kong is inseparable with the opium trade. It was the consequences of the two Opium Wars that Hong Kong Island and Kowloon were ceded to Britain. It was the opium trade that first brought wealth to the city. It was the opium trade that brought in investments to develop Hong Kong as the most efficient port city in the region. Soon after becoming a British colony, Hong Kong emerged as the world’s official hub of opium trading and processing. By mid 19th century, three quarters of Indian opium were being handled in Victoria Harbour, and 40,000 chests of opium (worth 16 million pounds sterling at that time) were stored in the city on average at anytime. Due to the trade of opium and other products such as tea and silk, there was a large demand for godowns (warehouses) along the harbour. On 14 June 1841, less than 6 months since the British began their rule, the first lots of land were sold in Hong Kong. For 565 pounds sterling, Jardine Matheson & Co. (怡和洋行) bought 5,309 sq.m of land in East Point to set up their first offices and godowns in the colony. Their office was set up at Lot No. 1, where the former Excelsior Hotel (怡東酒店) stood in modern days. Formed in 1832 by William Jardine and James Matheson, Jardine Matheson traded tea, cotton, silk, and also opium in the Canton area. After settled in Hong Kong, it soon grew to become the largest foreign trading company in the Far East. In the following decades after purchasing their first lots of land, the company continued to expand their headquarters in the area, building godowns, wharves, offices, factories, houses for ships and crews, and infrastructure across Causeway Bay. In 1872, Jardine Matheson ended its involvement in the opium trade after acquiring enormous profits. In the next 150 years, the company continues to diversify itself into the present Fortune Global 500 company, with a huge business portfolio both in Hong Kong and abroad: shipping, railway, real estate (Hongkong Land), hotels (Mandarin Oriental), ice and dairy (Dairy Farm), Hongkong Tramway, Star Ferry, aviation management (Jardine Aviation Services), motors (Jardine Motors, Jardine Cycle and Carriage, Astra International), export and import, banking, cotton spinning, textile manufacturing, sugar refinery, construction (Gammon), food industry (Maxim’s Caterers, Pizza Hut HK), retail (7-Eleven HK, IKEA HK), engineering (Jardine Engineering Corporation), insurance, beer brewery, cold storage… and the list just keeps on going.

Seven years after Jardine Matheson stopped their opium trade, Lee Hysan (利希慎) was born in Hawaii in 1879 into the family of Lee Leung-yik (利良奕), a businessman who obtained great wealth in the Hong Kong’s opium trade. After working as a teacher, interpreter, bank staff, timber factory owner, and shipping company manager, Lee Hysan took over his father’s business, and became a highly successful opium trader, earning him the nickname Opium King. In 1923, Lee Hysan bought the land of Jardine’s Hill (East Point Hill) from Jardine Matheson for the sum of HK$3.8 million. Roughly defined by today’s Percival Street, Lee Garden Road, Yun Ping Road, Leighton Road, and Lee Theatre, this huge piece of land was named Lee Garden (利園山) and intended to host a series of opium refinery facilities. Soon international opium trade was banned, Lee and his family turned to other ideas for the land. In 1925, Lee Garden Amusement Park (利園遊樂場) opened its doors on East Point Hill, becoming the first crowd puller of Causeway Bay. But it was the adjacent Lee Theatre (利舞臺) at 99 Percival Street that proved to be the crowd’s favorite. Opened in 1927, the 2000 seats theatre soon became the city’s primary venue for Chinese operas, and later for movies (first being Charlie Chaplin’s The Great Dictator in 1940), concerts, and live shows such as the Miss Hong Kong Pageant. After screening Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Terminator 2: Judgment Day, the iconic theatre was demolished in 1991 to make way for Lee Theatre Plaza (利舞臺廣場), a 25-storey retail and restaurant complex. Apart from theatre and amusement park, the Lee family also established Lee Garden Restaurant, Lee Garden Hotel, and a number of residential and office developments in the area, after blasting away the rocky East Point Hill bits by bits since 1953. The last bit of flattening work was completed during the construction of Hennessy Centre (興利中心), the former 41-storey office complex where Mitsukoshi (三越) Department Store was located. The site was redeveloped again in 2006 and reopened as the new 40-storey landmark called Hysan Place (希慎廣場). Today, many developments at Lee Garden are still under the Lee family’s control, including commercial complexes Lee Garden One to Six, Lee Theatre Plaza, and Hysan Place.

East Point was the heart of Hong Kong’s opium trade and almost became home of the city’s biggest opium refinery facility. But as the story unfolded, it eventually evolved into the city’s most well known shopping district: Causeway Bay, and become one of the world’s most expensive retail market. With four prestige Japanese department stores anchoring the lands of Jardine Matheson and Lee Hysan, Causeway Bay was nicknamed “Little Ginza” in 1980’s. Today, hardly any Hongkonger could connect their beloved shopping paradise with the lucrative trade of poppy tears.

Jardine’s East Point offices and godowns in 1844: offices and warehouses at tip of East Point (around today’s World Trade Centre, former Excelsior Hotel, SOGO, Patterson Street) and director’s villas on Jardine’s Hill (also known as East Point Hill and today’s Lee Gardens). The water beyond was Tung Lo Wan (Causeway Bay), the bay that later became Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter and today’s Victoria Park. [Unknown painter, wikimedia commons, public domain]
A director’s house of Jardine Matheson & Co. at East Point Hill, 1868. [Photo by John Thomson, Wellcome Collections, public domain]
Jardine Matheson’s Sugar refinery facilities in 1871 at today’s Sugar Street (糖街). [Photo by William Pryor Floyd, Wellcome Collections, public domain]
Located opposite to the Noon-day Gun at Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter, The Excelsior (怡東酒店) was a 4-star hotel that served as the headquarters of Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group before it was demolished in 2019. Located on “Lot No. 1”, Excelsior sat on the first plot of land sold in Hong Kong in 1841. Opened in 1973, it was the first hotel in Hong Kong to host more than 1000 rooms. [2019]
Named after William Jardine of Jardine Matheson, Jardine Bazaar is one of the oldest shopping streets in Hong Kong, dated back to around 1845. [2022]
Due to its proximity to city centre, the street market at Jardine Crescent (渣甸坊) is popular with tourists seeking for products at a bargain price. [2022]
At Jardine’s Crescent, The 50,000 sq.ft five level Victoria’s Secret flagship store closed in 2020 during the pandemic. Its 10-year lease in 2017 was estimated at HK$7 million (US$900,000) a month, which was already 50% lower than its predecessor Forever 21. The US fast fashion chain paid a whopping HK$13.8 million (US$1.75 million) monthly rent from 2011 to 2017, before pulling out as the numbers of Mainland Chinese travellers was not as high as they would expect. [2020]
Named after William Paterson, a former partner of Jardine Matheson, Paterson Street is one of the busiest shopping streets in in Causeway Bay. [2022]
Being as small and spatially efficient as possible is the key to survive the high rents in Causeway Bay (or if one has bought the retail space decades ago). Two tiny shops across from Times Square on Matheson Street somehow found their ways to sustain. To put it in context, just around the corner from the two stores, a 1000 sq.ft (plus a 600 sq.ft mezzanine) retail space was sold for HK$180m (US$ 22.9m) in 2019. [2022]
As the Chinese name of Jardine Matheson, Yee Wo (怡和) is used to name a number of things in Hong Kong, from buildings, companies to a street. Between the iconic Hennessy Road junction in front of SOGO Department Store and Causeway Road where Victoria Park begins, the 300m Yee Wo Street was one of the busiest place in Hong Kong before the pandemic, already hosting over 1 million pedestrian traffic in 2007. In recent years, bans on foreign visitors and restaurant dining after 6pm during the pandemic have devastated the business and pedestrian traffic in Causeway Bay. [2020]
Having been a landmark of Causeway Bay since 1963, the circular footbridge of Yee Wo Street is popular spot for people and tram watching. [2020]
The circular footbridge also appears in a number of films, including Scarlett Johansson’s Ghost in the Shell. [2020]


Opened in 1925, Lee Garden amusement park was an early recreational venue in Hong Kong. [Photo: wikimedia commons, public domain]
Today, Lee Gardens is a commercial area lined with office towers and luxury shops. [2022]
Named after Lee Hysan’s wife, Lan Fong Road (蘭芳道) is a small street in Lee Gardens where a number of old tong lau tenement blocks still remain. The Lee family renovated one of the corner building into a block of service apartments, namely Lee Gardens Apartments. [2022]
In this area of Lee Garden, sightlines of most pedestrians would be focused on ground floor shop windows. Many would hardly notice the office towers above, including the 52-storey Lee Garden One. [2020]
The pandemic dealt a heavy blow to the pedestrian traffic in Causeway Bay, including Lee Gardens. The emergence of vacant spaces signifies that many small shop owners prefer to periodically exit the retail scene. [2020]
Global brands are less affected by the sudden decrease of pedestrian traffic, including the Leica flagship store in Lee Gardens. Opened in 2019, the store brings together retail, cafe, and art gallery into a cool shop inspired by the aesthetics of 1960’s Hong Kong. [2022]
Meanwhile, the cluster of luxury shops on Yun Ping Road (恩平道) stay put during the pandemic despite the dramatic decrease of tourists. [2022]
Lee Gardens is one of the several locations in Causeway Bay that is dotted with luxury shops. [2022]
Interestingly, right behind the row of luxury shops of Rolex, Dunhill, Bvgari, Van Cleef & Arpels, Roger Vivier, etc. is actually the street market of Jardine Crescent (渣甸坊), where customers go to get clothing and accessories at a bargain price. [2022]
At the junction of Percival Street, Hysan Avenue and Leighton Road, the retail complex Lee Theatre Plaza replaced the iconic Lee Theatre in mid 1990’s. [2022]
The triangular forecourt of Lee Theatre Plaza often hosts temporary installations for advertisements and events, such as the giant Iron Man in 2019 while Avengers: End Game was showing in cinemas. [2019]
Designed by American practice Kohn Pedersen Fox (KPF), Hysan Place is the first building in the city to be pre-certified for LEED Platinum at the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). [2022]
Three escalators at the intersection of Kai Chiu Road and Yun Ping Road provides one of the main retail entrances for Hysan Place. [2020]
Occupying the site of the former landmark Mitsukoshi (三越) Department Store, Hysan Place, a 40-storey complex split between retail, restaurants, and offices, has become the new landmark of Causeway Bay since 2012. [2021]