ultramarinus – beyond the sea

Anuradhapura & Polonnaruwa

RANKOT VIHARA, LANKATILAKA & GAL VIHARA, Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka, 2019.12.08

Day 4 (2 of 3).

Parakramabahu I (reigned 1153–1186) is often considered as the greatest ruler of the Polonnaruwa Kingdom.  Under his rule, Sri Lanka had entered a prosperous time.  The ambitious king unified the island into one kingdom, expanded and beautified the capital city, constructed extensive irrigation systems, reformed the army and religious customs, and conducted in military campaigns in Burma and South India.  Today, many surviving structures of Polonnaruwa, such as the Royal Palace, the circular Vatadage at the Quadrangle, the Lankatilaka Viharaya and the Buddhist statues of Gal Vihara, all could be traced back to the majestic ruler.  King Nissanka Malla (reigned 1187 – 1196AD) continued the building spree of his predecessor Parakramabahu I, and spent much of the nation’s resources on construction.  One of his most prominent projects was Rankoth Vehera Stupa, the largest stupa in Polonnaruwa and fourth largest in Sri Lanka.  With a base diameter of 550 feet and an original height of about 200 feet, Rankoth Vehera was the skyscraper of ancient Polonnaruwa.

01Our third stop in Polonnaruwa was Rankoth Vehera Stupa, the tallest structure in the ancient city.

02Similar to the stupas in Anuradhapura, small shrines known as vahalkada were constructed at the four cardinal axes of Rankoth Vehera Stupa for offerings of worshipers.

03Completed in 1190AD, the Rankoth Vehera Stupa was constructed in a similar style as Ruwanwelisaya in Anuradhapura, which was built over 1000 years prior.

04An beautiful tree at the base of Rankoth Vehera Stupa provides a great spot for worshiper group to gather and perform Buddhist chanting.

05Around Kiri Vehera, smaller stupas were also constructed as burial place for royalties and high priests.

06On our way to Lankatilaka Monastery, the fourth highlight of Polonnaruwa, we passed by Kiri Vehera, the second tallest stupa in the ancient city.  Kiri Vehera is believed to be built by King Parakramabahu the Great (1153-1186 A.D.) in memory of his Queen Subhadra.

07Then we arrived at Lankatilaka Image House or Lankatilaka Vihara, the largest image house in Polonnaruwa.  Unlike traditional stupas, the building focused on presenting the religious image, a large standing statue of the Buddha.  Two tall pillars frame the entrance of the building.  The original pillars were thought to be two times the existing height.  The building was part of the Alahana Pirivena Monastery complex erected by King Parakramabahu 1 (1153-1186).

08Two beautiful guard stones mark the entrance of Lankatilaka.

09According to some accounts, the building was originally five storey high, while the statue was 41 feet tall.  The entire structure, including the main Buddha statue, was made from clay bricks.

10Near Lankatilaka, we passed by an impressive pool in the Alahana Pirivena complex.  This pool was part of a larger bathing and water storing network.

11Gal Vihara, the impressive rock temple featuring four Buddha relief statues carved from a single piece of granite rock, was our last stop at Polonnaruwa.  15 feet of rock was carved away to create the surface where the statues were carved.

12The statues at Gal Vihara are considered some of the best ancient Sinhalese sculpting art.

13Some believe that the 22’-9” standing statue was not depicting the Buddha, but instead monk Ananda with a sorrowful look standing adjacent to the reclining Buddha at his deathbed.

14The 46’-4” reclining statue depicting the parinirvana of the Buddha is the largest statue in Gal Vihara.

15The Gal Vihara marked the end of our brief visit of Polonnaruwa by car.  Ideally if we had more time, we would spend more time walking or cycling around the archaeological park to fully appreciate the scale, planning characteristics and other highlights of the ancient capital.


ROYAL PALACE & SACRED QUADRANGLE, Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka, 2019.12.08

Day 4 (1of 3).

100km southeast of Anuradhapura stands the ruins of Sri Lanka’s second ancient capital, Polonnaruwa. For two hundred years, Polonnaruwa served as the centre of the nation after Anuradhapura was sacked by the invading Chola Kingdom from Southern India in the 10th century.  The Chola Tamils destroyed Buddhist monuments and monasteries, and established a new capital in Polonnaruwa.  In 1070AD, Vijayabahu I of Ruhuna Kingdom (southeast of the island) drove the Chola out, unified the country, and established the second major Sinhalese kingdom and restored Buddhism as the national religion.  Polonnaruwa flourished as the most important medieval city in Sri Lanka until the 13th century when the island was again invaded by the Tamil Pandya Dynasty from India.

Today, the archaeological ground of Polonnaruwa is a popular tourist destination in the Cultural Triangle (marked by Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa and Kandy), the region on the island dotted with ancient capitals and World Heritage sites.  To save time, we hired a private car from Anuradhapura to Sigiriya, with a detour to Polonnaruwa.  At Polonnaruwa, our driver took us first to the visitor centre for the admission tickets and a brief visit to the museum, before driving us to the five highlights in the archaeological park: Royal Palace, Quadrangle, Rankot Vihara Stupa, Lankatilaka Monastery and the Buddha statues of Gal Vihara.

01Built by Parakramabahu I (reigned 1153-1186 ) in the 12th century,  the Royal Palace was once seven storey tall in its heyday.

02The Royal Palace of King Parakumba was said to contain 1000 rooms.  Now only a few dozens remain.

03Much of the crumbling ruins is covered with lush green moss.

04The Royal Bathing pool (Kumara Pokuna) near the Royal Palace was a delightful treat for visitors.

05Built by Parakramabahu I (reigned 1153-1186 ), water would enter the pool through the two dragon mouths, and could be drained out after use.

06The Audience Hall of the Royal Palace is another feature at the Royal Palace.

07The Audience Hall is famous for the frieze of elephants, each has a unique pose.

08Two stone lions guard the entrance of the Audience Hall.

09The stone pillars of the Audience Hall have some amazing details.

10The second highlight we visited at Polonnaruwa was the Quadrangle.  On a raised platform, Quadrangle encompasses a cluster of religious structures erected by different rulers of Polonnaruwa.  Atadage is the oldest building among them all.  Built by King Vijayabahu the Great (1055 – 1110), Atadage is believed to house the Relic of the Tooth of Buddha.  Adjacent to Atadage, Hatadage built by King Nissanka Malla (1187 – 1196) was also a shrine for the Relic of the Tooth of Buddha.

11Built by King Nissanka Malla (1187-1196), Nissanka Latha Mandapaya is an interesting structure with unique columns and a small stone stupa.  The building was used for the king to listen to Buddhist chanting.

12Built by Parakramabahu I to house the Relic of the Tooth of the Buddha, or by King Nissanka Malla to hold Buddha’s alms bowl, Vatadage was an essential structure at the Quadrangle.

13Because of its circular form and well preserved carving details, Vatadage is also the most famous building in Polonnaruwa.

16Vatadage has two stone platforms and a small stone stupa atop.  Steps and statues were constructed at the four cardinal directions.  Stone pillars suggest that a wooden roof might have once covered the circular structure.

14Monkeys are everywhere in Sri Lanka.

15At all temples or ruins, including Vatadage, tourists would be reminded that taking selfies with their backs toward the statue of the Buddha is prohibited.

17Completely built with bricks, Thuparama is about 84 ft long and 56 ft wide.  Its brick walls are about 7 ft thick.

18Inside Thuparama, the central seating Buddha statue was long gone.  Yet the adjacent limestone statues survive till the present day.


MIRISAWETIYA STUPA, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, 2019.12.07

Day 3 (4 of 4).

Mirisawetiya Stupa was just five minute walk away from our hotel Sanctuary at Tissawewa.  As we left the ruins of Abhayagiri Monastery, it was still a little early for supper, so we decided to check out Mirisawetiya Stupa before sunset.  The road leading to the stupa was decorated with colourful Buddhist banners and flags.  Large group of people, some dressed in traditional costumes, gathered at the entrance parking lot.  Red carpet was laid on the ground leading into the forecourt of the stupa.  We were excited to see the scene, despite we couldn’t figure out exactly what was going on.  We figured that there must be a certain kind of religious ceremony taking place.  And so we followed the red carpet, took off our shoes at the forecourt, and entered the stupa complex.

01It was still too early to call it a day, so we asked the tuk tuk driver to drop us off at Mirisawetiya Stupa.

02A long red carpet led us into the stupa forecourt.  A large TV screen was broadcasting the speech of a monk.

03The vivid Buddhist colours and traditional costumes stand out extremely well from the white wash stupa.

04The costume looks like to be some kind of ceremonial costumes.

05Shrines at the Mirisawetiya Stupa was full of offerings.

06Monks also gathered at the stupa with their offerings.

07Crowds sat down at various locations around the stupa.

08A parade of ceremonial procession walked right by us.

09Followed by a number of people dressed in white.

10Because of the crowds and security control, we could not move freely around the stupa.

11We stayed with a group of worshipers for a while.

12And admired the stunning Mirisawetiya Stupa below the setting sun.

13Unfortunately we didn’t understand the language so we didn’t stay for long at the scene.

14Later at night, we found out that the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka came to Mirisawetiya Stupa for a visit.  What we saw was part of the ceremony associated with his visit.

15Due to the close distance, we could still hear the speakers of Mirisawetiya‘s ceremony from our hotel until late at night.  The event perhaps gave us an insight on how a Buddhist event might have look like in Anuradhapura over a millennia ago.  The next day we would move on to Polonnaruwa and then Sigiriya, two other popular attractions in the Cultural Triangle.


ABHAYAGIRI MONASTERY, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, 2019.12.07

Day 3 (3 of 4).

From 399 to 414AD, Chinese monk Faxian traveled to India and Sri Lanka in search for Buddhist scriptures.  In his travelogue A Record of Buddhist Kingdoms, he documented the places he visited in his journey, including Anuradhapura where he stayed briefly in 412AD.  Faxian gave the following account on Abhayagiri, the largest Buddhist monastery in Anuradhapura: “A monastery, called the Abhayagiri, where there are five thousand monks.  There is in it a hall of Buddha, adorned with carved and inlaid works of gold and silver, and rich in the seven precious substances, in which there is an image (of Buddha) in green jade, more than twenty cubits in height, glittering all over with those substances, and having an appearance of solemn dignity which words cannot express. In the palm of the right hand there is a priceless pearl…”

Founded in the 2nd century BC, Abhayagiri Vihara was once a world renowned Buddhist monastery and learning institution attracting monks from all over Sri Lanka and surrounding countries including Java, Burma and India.  In the 4th century, the Buddha’s tooth relic was brought to Sri Lanka from India.  Abhayagiri was selected as the shrine and designated venue to showcase this precious relic in public veneration.  Supported by different rulers, Abhayagiri continued to serve as the main hub of Mahayana, Theravada and Vajrayana Buddhism until the 12th century, when Anuradhapura was sacked and abandoned, and the national capital was moved to Polonnaruwa.  The magnificent monastery fell into ruins for 800 years until late 19th century and early 20th century when excavation and restoration work began.  Today, Abhayagiri has become one of the largest clusters of ancient ruins in Sri Lanka, where gigantic stupa, stone pools, brick walls, foundations of multi storey buildings, and exquisite stone carvings in the midst of lush green jungle reveal the bygone glory of Anuradhapura two millennia ago.

01After lunch at Sanctuary at Tissawewa, we hopped on a tuk tuk for Abhayagiri Dagoba, the largest monument in the monastery vicinity.

04Although not as crowded as Ruwanwelisaya and Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi, Abhayagiri Dagoba is popular among local worshipers.

05Believed to reach a height of 115m, Abhayagiri Dagoba was once the fourth tallest monument in the classical period, behind the Egyptian Pyramids in Giza and the Jethawanaramaya Dagoba.

06The shrine in front of the stupa houses a reclining Buddha.

07Abhayagiri Dagoba just went through a 15-year restoration at 2015 as a UNESCO project.

08Devoted worshiper praying at the stupa.

09The majestic stupa was the main focus of the entire Abhayagiri Vihara Monastery.

10A group of Western Buddhists sat down and listen to the teaching of their mentor.

11Another highlight at Abhayagiri Vihara is the ruins of Pancavasa palace hidden in the woods.

12The Pancavasa was famous for its exquisite carvings.

13Interesting carvings of Buddhist guardians at Pancavasa.

14All these exquisite carvings are not the reason why tourists flock into the woods in search for the ruins of Pancavasa.

15All tourists come here for one thing, the moonstone carving on the ground.

16Moonstone is a unique architectural feature in Sri Lanka. It usually appears as a base landing at a set of steps. Moonstones symbolize samsara, the endless cycle of reincarnation and the path to nirvana.  Each ring of animals represents a successive phase of one’s passage through samsara.

17The last thing we checked out in the monastery area was the Samadhi Buddha Statue.  The statues is believed to be part of a sacred Bodhi tree shrine.

18The 7′-3″ Samadhi Buddha Statue was carved out from a dolomite marble.  Sculpted in around the 5th century, the statue is considered one of the nation’s finest.


JETHAWANARAMAYA DAGOBA, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, 2019.12.07

Day 3 (2 of 4).

In ancient times, two Buddhist monasteries dominated the religious scenes in Anuradhapura, the Mahavihara and Abhayagiri.  Both monasteries were home to thousands of monks and represents the two competing sects of Theravāda Buddhism in Sri Lanka.  Their sectarian conflicts led to destruction of the Mahavihara, the main monastery of Theravada Buddhism built by the King Devanampiya Tissa.  Upon destroying the Mahavihara, King Mahasena (reigned 273-301AD) constructed the Jetavanaramaya Dagoba to house the relic of the Buddha’s belt.  Some also believed that the dagoba was built upon the place where Mahinda, the eldest son of Emperor Ashoka who first introduced Buddhism to Sri Lanka, lectured Buddhism.  Reaching a height of 400 feet, the original Jetavanaramaya Dagoba was the third tallest structure in the ancient world, behind the two Egyptian pyramids in Giza.  After Anuradhapura was abandoned in the 11th century, the stupa fell into ruins and subsequently renovated to its current height at 233 feet in the 12th century.  The stupa was gradually covered by shrubs until 1909, when conservation and clearing works began.

Towering above the horizon east of Ruwanwelisaya, the Jetavanaramaya Dagoba was the second great stupa that we visited in Anuradhapura.  On Google Map, Jetavanaramaya Dagoba appeared to be less than 1km east of Ruwanwelisaya.  We were too lazy to walk under the scorching sun, so we hopped on a tuk tuk for Jetavanaramaya.  Upon arriving at the famous stupa, we were surprised by the lack of visitors.  Unlike Ruwanwelisaya where the white stupa was surrounded by worshipers, Jetavanaramaya Dagoba appeared quite empty with only a handful of locals and foreign tourists.

01Once again we had to take off our shoes before entering the stupa platform.

02It was hard to imagine the imposing prominence of the original 400 feet tall stupa.

03A handful of local worshipers put down their offerings on the stone pedestals in front of the stupa.

04Beautiful statues of Buddha made of pink stone stood out prominently against the stupa wall.

05Dressed mainly in white, local worshipers circled the stupa in clockwise direction.

06Another Buddha statue is made with translucent white stone.

07Pieces of fine statues and relief carvings were placed in front of the brick stupa walls.

08At one side of the stupa stands a small worship hall.

09The Jetavanaramaya was constructed with special bricks made with 60% fine sand and 35% clay.

10In early 20th century, Jetavanaramaya was covered with dense shrubs.

11We left Jetavanaramaya after walking a full circle around the monument.

14No tuk tuk could be found at the entrance of Jetavanaramaya.  We decided to walk back to Ruwanwelisaya where we might be able to flag down a tuk tuk.

12On our way, we walk by Silachetiya (Kujjatissa) Stupa, another 2000-year-old historical structure built in the era of King Saddhatissa (137 – 119 BC).

13Near Ruwanwelisaya, we bumped into a group of tufted gray langur hanging around in the archaeological park.

15From Ruwanwelisaya, we decided to walk back to The Sanctuary at Tissawewa via Basawakkulama Tank, where locals enjoyed picnic lunch by the water .


RUVANVELISAYA STUPA, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, 2019.12.07

Day 3 (1 of 4).

At 400BC, the great thinker and religious teacher Gautama Buddha passed away.  His body was cremated and the ash was divided into eight portions given to eight different kingdoms as sacred relics.  During the reign of Ashoka the Great (268-232BC), relics of the Buddha was dug up and further subdivided into 84,000 portions.  Stupas were erected across the Indian subcontinent and Central Asia to house the relics.  As time went by, only a small number of relics remain in the original two-thousand-year-old stupas, while most have been transferred to different temples around the world along with the spreading of Buddhism.  Today, Buddhist relics can be found in many Asian countries, and even as far as in Russia and the United States.  As one of the earliest countries where Buddhism was introduced, Sri Lanka has some of the oldest stupas in the world.  Anuradhapura, the ancient capital of Sri Lanka where Buddhism first arrived at Ashoka’s time, was home to the oldest and grandest stupas, also called dagobas, in the nation.  While Buddhism in India has long declined, the religion continues to flourish in Sri Lanka until the present.  Today, a number of ancient stupas in Anurādhapura remain as popular pilgrimage sites for worshipers, just as they were 2000 years ago.

Built by King Dutugamunu in 137BC, Ruvanvelisaya is the stupa believed to house the largest amount of the Buddha’s relics anywhere in the world.  With a diameter of 300 feet and a height of about 350 feet, it was once one of the largest monuments in the ancient world.  As the nation’s political and cultural centre shifted away from Anurādhapura, the stupa fell into ruins during the Medieval time.  Restoration work of the great stupa began in early 20th century.  Since then, the stupa has once again become a religious and historical icon for the ancient capital.

01A short walk from our hotel brought us to the archaeological museum, a well established museum housed in the former district secretariat building.  We stayed briefly at the museum to learn a bit more about the history of the city and its famous stupas.  A museum staff was kind enough to show us around at a number of exhibition rooms.  Then we walked over to the ticket office adjacent to the museum to purchase our one-day cultural heritage tickets.

02After obtaining the cultural heritage tickets, we continued to head north to Ruvanvelisaya Stupa.

03Ruvanvelisaya Stupa was the most crowded stupa we visited in Anuradhapura.

04Before reaching the stupa, we arrived at glass building designated for candle and incense offerings.

05It was interesting to see so many worshipers dresses in white and dogs resting on the floor inside the candle offering building.

06Ruvanvelisaya’s famous elephant wall was originally built by King Dutugamunu’s brother Saddhatissa two thousand years ago.  It was said that the original 344 elephants were coated with gold dust.

07The actual stupa is washed in white paint, and wrapped at the base with a multi coloured band resembling the Buddhist flag of Sri Lanka.

08Around the stupa stand offering tables and stone counters.  Beautiful lotus flowers once again are the most popular offerings.

09Some worshipers prefer to leave their offerings at the base of the stupa.

10At each cardinal directions, a splendid shrine with Buddha’s figure known as vahalkada attract worshipers to leave offerings and chant prayers.

11Once again lotus flowers are the most popular offerings.

12Other than the white paint on the stupa and white clothing of worshipers, almost everything else is vivid in colours.

13Other than lotus flowers, rice and sweet good are also used as offerings.

14Somehow each worshipers would know where to place their flowers in order to create the fantastic flower patterns.

15It was hard to imagine how abundant lotus flowers are in the nation to allow so many worshipers to leave their offerings.

16At one end, we reached a small and crowded shrine.

17Inside the shrine there is a mini stupa protected by transparent partitions.

18Ruvanvelisaya was undergoing an extensive restoration.

19Before leaving, we passed by an area full of incense smoke and devoted worshipers.

20We left Ruvanvelisaya from the same path we came, where worshipers dressed in white continued to enter and pay their respect to the magnificent stupa.


ISURUMUNIYA RAJAMAHA VIHARAYA, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, 2019.12.06

Day 2 (5 of 5).

Since most attractions in Anurādhapura are covered by the one-day Cultural Heritage Ticket, we decided to visit the two obvious exceptions on our first day: Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi, and the rock temple of Isurumuniya Rajamaha Viharaya, and leave the rest covered by the day ticket for the following day.  On the east coast of Tissa Wewa, the reservoir built by King Devanampiya Tissa in the 3rd century BC, stands a group of giant granite boulders, where for the past two thousand years had been served as a small Buddhist temple, the Isurumuniya Rajamaha Viharaya.  Constructed under the reign of Devanampiya Tissa in the 3rd century BC, the vihara was used as a Buddhist monastery to the house 500 ordained children.  Renovations and additions in later centuries continued to transform the temple into its current form, which is consisted of the old rock shrine, the new shrine, the lily pond, and the rock cliff on which visitors can climb atop to check out the stupa and a rock engraved footprints of the Buddha.  The temple is famous for its stone carvings, but unfortunately much of the complex, including the small museum, was under renovation during our visit.

01From Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi, we followed Google Map and walked towards Isurumuniya Rajamaha Viharaya.  On our way, we passed Dakkhina Stupa, a brick stupa constructed in the 2nd century BC.

02Unlike the ancient stupas in town, Sandahiru Seya near Isurumuniya Rajamaha Viharaya is in fact a modern construction commissioned by President Rajapaksa in 2010.  Once completed, the modern stupa will reach a height of 85m.  Slow funding and construction means Sandahiru Seya won’t be completed anytime soon.

03Near the entrance of Isurumuniya Rajamaha Viharaya, we passed by the Buddhist monastery Sri Sarananda Maha Pirivena.

04Beyond a bridge over a beautiful lotus pond, we arrived at the entrance of Isurumuniya Rajamaha Viharaya.

05Lotus ponds are common all over Sri Lanka.

06It was almost sunset when we reached the magnificent rock temple.  Just like the shrine of Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi, we had to take off our shoes before entering the compound of Isurumuniya Rajamaha Viharaya.

07Set in front the backdrop of granite boulders, the Isurumuniya Temple and the adjacent pond are the most prominent features in the complex.

08Splendid stone carving of Isurumuniya Rajamaha Viharaya is one of the main reason why foreign visitors come.

09The shrine of Isurumuniya Temple contains a Buddhist image behind glass.

10Unfortunately the small museum on site was closed for renovation.  We left the temple and walked over to the stair at the back side.

11Behind the Isurumuniya Temple, a series of steps led us to the top of the granite boulders.

12Top top of the boulders is dominated by a stupa and rocks with carvings.

13The white stupa is actually a relatively recent addition to the complex.

14Late afternoon sun cast a peaceful aura onto the stupa.

15At the top, ancient carvings, including a pair of Buddha’s footprints.

16What seems to be a designated area of money offerings at the top.

17Looking down, we could see the pond and more incoming visitors.

18Behind us to the west, the sun sett over the peaceful reservior Tissa Wewa.  It was time for us to head back to the hotel for a Sri Lanka supper to conclude the day.

 


2,308-YEAR-OLD SACRED BODHI, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, 2019.12.06

Day 2 (4 of 5).

In 288BC, a sapling of Sri Maha Bodhi, the sacred fig tree in Buddha Gaya of India under which Lord Buddha attained enlightenment, was brought to Sri Lanka by Sangamitta Theri, the eldest daughter of Indian Emperor Ashoka the Great.  The sapling was brought to the island in a golden vase on the ship, and planted by King Devanampiya Tissa on a 6.5m high terrace in the Mahamevnawa Gardens of Anuradhapura.  Sangamitta stayed in Anurādhapura and established the nun-lineage of Bhikkhunī with several other Indian nuns.   Along with his elder brother Mahinda, Sangamitta was a vital figure for spreading Buddhism to Sri Lanka.  The ancient capital Anuradhapura continued to flourish and develop into a hub for Buddhist teachings that lasted for many centuries.

Today, the sacred tree Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi continues to thrive and has become one of the most important pilgrimage site for Buddhists around the world.  The amazing 2308-year-old tree is also known as the oldest living tree planted by human hands on record.  Given the significance of the tree, the Sri Lankan government banned all construction within 500m from it.  Walls were also erected in the 18th century to protect the tree from wild elephants. Golden fence around the tree was later added in 1969.  Buddha statues were placed at four sides of the sacred tree by different ancient kings.  Ceremonies are held at the site to celebrate new year and several other festivals every year.

01After a light lunch, we ventured out the Sanctuary Tissawewa and head east.  Following the instruction given by the hotel staff, we found our way towards the legendary fig tree.

02From the main road, we followed a pedestrian only path for about 10 minutes towards the sacred tree.  At one point, we passed by a tree full of monkeys.

03Most worshipers arrived at the sacred tree with lotus flower as offerings.

04A green garden mat surrounds the terrace where the sacred Bodhi is located.

07From the semicircular Moon stone (Sandakada pahana, a floor feature unique to Sinhalese architecture), worshipers would go up the steps to the shrine at the second level of the platform.

05At each cardinal direction, a shrine is built for worshipers to leave their offerings and receive blessing from the monk.

11The shrine is relatively simple, with an offering table and small Buddha statues.

06Offerings of lotus flower can be seen at all Buddhist temples in Sri Lanka, including Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi.

10Some shrines are more popular than the others.

08Dressed in white, worshipers would leave a handful of lotus flower at the shrine, and receive blessing and a white string wrist bracelet from the monk of Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi.

09At the platform, monks and worshipers interact and chat prayers towards the sacred Bodhi tree.

12Behind the shrine further up the platform, we could see what must be the 2300 year old sacred Bodhi tree.

13The lush green crown of the sacred tree provides a perfect backdrop for the golden features of the shrines and colouful Buddhist flags.  The golden sunlight, peaceful aura,  and sounds of rubbing leaves in the gentle breeze convey a strong sense of spirituality.

14Structures painted in gold are erected to support certain branches of the sacred tree.

15A small temple is located at one side of the platform.

16Inside the temple, a decent sized worship hall houses a Buddhist statue.

17Apart from the sacred Bodhi tree on the highest terrace, younger fig trees are planted at the lower platforms.  These trees are meant to provide protection to the sacred tree against storm and animals.

18We enjoyed the spiritual atmosphere of Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi.  After checking out the shrines at all four sides of the sacred tree, we left the compound at the south gate.

 


THE SANCTUARY AT TISSAWEWA, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, 2019.12.06

Day 2 (3 of 5).

After a brief stopover in Negombo, Anuradhapura was the real first destination of our journey.  Lying on the north central plains, the historical cities of Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Sigiriya and Kandy are often referred to as the Cultural Triangle of Sri Lanka where visitors flock to see the UNESCO World Heritage archaeological sites and Buddhist temples.  We began with Anuradhapura, one of oldest and certainly the most important capital cities of ancient Sri Lanka spanning 1300 years from 337BC to 1017AD, and the centre of Theravada Buddhism for many centuries.  We stayed in Anuradhapura for 1.5 days to check out the Buddhist stupas and archaeological sites, as well as the famous 2300-year-old sacred Bodhi Tree.  Most visitors stay in the new town where the majority of hotels and restaurants are located.  Only a handful of hotels and restaurants can be found in the old town along with ancient stupas, lily ponds, and archaeological sites, including the historical hotel The Sanctuary at Tissawewa, where we stayed two nights.

Opened in 1907 as the Grand Hotel Anuradhapura during the time of British governor Henry Arthur Blake, the 22-room Sanctuary at Tissawewa is one of the most well known colonial hotel in Sri Lanka.  The hotel has served a number of celebrities and foreign heads of state in the past, including Queen Elizabeth II of Britain, Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore, etc.  After extensive renovations in 2013, the hotel reopens its doors again.  The century-old building is a great example of architectural combo of east meeting west, with large eaves and covered verandas coupled with stone arches, timber balustrades and antique furniture.  For us, the most lovely feature was the 14 acres garden, where we watched peacocks and monkeys chasing around the hundred-year-old trees in early morning, and looked for flying foxes and fireflies dancing over the bushes before dusk.

01Heavier than usual rainfall prior to our arrival flooded the hotel’s entrance path.  Every time we walked out the hotel we would need to walk over the flooded path with our sandals.

02The flooded water perhaps came from overflow of the ancient artificial reservoirs nearby.

03Peacocks roamed around hotel garden every morning.

04There are a number of beautiful trees in the hotel garden.

05The walk through the lush-green garden was our first pleasant experience of the day.

06Renovated in 2013, the 113-year hotel is a fine colonial building.

07The covered passenger drop off welcomes all visitors from close and afar.

08The veranda on the ground floor faces directly to the lush green garden.

09Apart from peacocks, a large group of monkeys came to the garden

10The upper veranda offers better view to the hotel garden.

11Staying at The Sanctuary at Tissawewa offered us a comfortable sleep.

12In the evening, the hotel stood quietly in the darkness of the garden.

13During our stay, there were a few other rooms were occupied.

17Occasionally we could see fireflies in the hotel garden.

14The staff was always busy with paperwork at the receptionist counter.

15During our stay at The Sanctuary at Tissawewa, we always have dinner at the hotel restaurant.

16For breakfast, we could choose between Western or Sri Lankan breakfast.

18Outside of the hotel compound lie a number of wetlands, including rice paddy fields.

20A number of lotus ponds also lie across the street from the hotel entrance.

19In one evening, we had a warm encounter with a kitten just a short walk on the main road from the hotel entrance.


ROAD TO ANURADHAPURA, Sri Lanka, 2019.12.06

Day 2 (2 of 5).

We always enjoy scenery outside the car window while traveling on the road.  It offers us an aperture to frame momentary street scenes away from tourist attractions.  From billboards to posters, gas stations to bus stops, convenient stores to market stalls, private dwellings to communal housing, observing the locals from the car gave us a collage of insights on their daily businesses from a discreet distance.  Unlike driving on a North American highway where human activities remain unseen from the road, the enthralling human activities in South Asia may happen anytime next to the curb, even along a busy highway.

The 4 hour car journey from Negombo to Anuradhapura passed through numerous villages and towns, school complexes, wet markets, Buddhist temples, Christian shrines, palm forests, rice paddy fields, etc.  Roads were surprisingly clean and well maintained, and traffic was certainly not as hectic and insane as we have seen in other countries like India, Egypt or Peru.  Indeed, Sri Lanka is one of the fastest growing economy in South Asia.  According to the World Bank, Sri Lanka has the lowest rate of extreme poverty in South Asia.   As we have seen during the trip, the gap between the rich and poor in Sri Lanka is certainly not as apparent as many other countries we have visited.  While lives of most Sri Lankan remain simple, rapid urbanization, wide-spreading of the Internet and mobile network, and high literacy rate would certainly transform this sleepy island nation in the near future.

01Water puddles reminded us that the monsoon rain was getting more unpredictable and lengthy in recent years according to the driver.

02Fishmonger like to set up their stalls right by the road, usually under a big tree.

03Peacock is the national bird of India.  These magnificent birds are also very common in Sri Lanka.  Their vivid colours become an undisputed symbol of beauty for the country.

04Many rely on the state-run Sri Lanka Transport Board buses to move around the rural areas and go about their daily business.

05Convenient stores selling snacks, sweets, fruits and drinks were the most common shops we saw on the road.

06Like much of South Asia, the sugar-coated problem of diabetes also poses a rising threat to Sri Lanka.  In 2017, the prevalence of diabetes in Sri Lanka was about 10%.  This number climbed to 27% in the city of Colombo.  Around 10% of pregnant mothers had diabetes and 35% of women were overweight.

07Occasionally, we would pass by large neglected estate or plantation compound.

08Christian shrines dot around the roads near Negombo.

09The Christian shrines gradually make way for their Buddhist counterparts further away from Negombo.

10Dialog and Mobitel are two of the most popular mobile service providers in Sri Lanka.  Foreign tourists usually choose between these two providers for sim cards.

11Bicycles are the most popular means of transportation for local villagers in rural areas.

15For town dwellers, motorbikes are definitely their desirable choice.

13However, for moving a group of people or traveling with goods, most locals would opt for hiring a tuk tuk (auto-rickshaw).

16For local women, fashion and styling are heavily influenced by Bollywood from its powerful neighbhour.

12Fashion in Sri Lanka is relatively conservative, especially in the north or near religious sites.

14A Buddhist monastery features a smaller version of the famous elephant wall at Ruwanwelisaya Stupa in Anuradhapura.

17Approaching Anuradhapura, we passed by a series of water bodies.  Since the 3rd century BC, reservoirs were constructed around the ancient capital to sustain the earliest kingdom of Sri Lanka.

18The arrival at the artificial reservoirs of Tissa Wewa and Basawkkulama signified our 4-hour-drive had come to an end.  We had officially arrived at the heart of Sri Lanka’s most ancient capital, Anuradhapura.


SRI LANKA TRIP: 2019.12.05 – 17

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Our most recent travels have been focused on short trips to Japan and South Asia.  These experiences offered us two distinct views of Asia.  In Japan, the minimalist beauty in fashion, food, and architecture, the strong sense of community and respect to local traditions in villages and urban centres, and the Shinto attitude on harmonic coexistence with the nature captivated our admiration.  On the other hand, the pungent spices, mystic incenses, vivid costumes, bizarre rituals, exquisite temples, majestic landscapes, and mythical folklore of Tibet, India and Myanmar offered us some of the last glimpses of truly unique and centuries-long traditions in our ever-changing world.  After an invigorating journey to Hokkaido in early summer, we turned our eyes to the exotic dimensions of South Asia once again.  We picked the “tear drop” in the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, as our destination for a 12-day trip.

2019 marked the 10th anniversary of the end of the Sri Lankan Civil War, a devastating conflict between the Sri Lankan military and the rebel force of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) or simply known as the Tamil Tigers.  The conflict lasted for 26 years.  15 years have also passed since the horrific 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, the natural catastrophe that has devastated the coastal area of Sri Lanka and claimed 35,000+ lives.  In the past 10 years, tourism has boomed exponentially along with the rapid growing economy.  2019 was on track to become another record breaking year for tourist numbers until Easter Day, when Isis terrorists attacked hotels, churches and residences in Colombo, Negombo and Batticaloa, claiming 259 innocent lives.  The incident caused a disastrous blow to the country’s tourism.  The government immediately tightened national security, attempting to restore international confidence.  Despite of the attack, magazines and newspapers remained affirmative to endorse Sri Lanka as a top destination of 2019.  After learning about its diverse attractions, affordability, ease of travel and communication, pristine natural scenery and unique cultural experiences, we were not surprise at all to see why Lonely Planet selected Sri Lanka as their destination of 2019.

As a small country about half the size of England, Sri Lanka has a lot to offer.  We planned for a loop journey starting in Negombo on the western coast, then moved north to the UNESCO World Heritage sites of Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Sigiriya & Dambulla before heading up to the hill region.  In the hills, we stopped by the historical capital Kandy, took the “world’s most scenic train ride” to the tea plantations near Ella and Haputale.  Leaving behind the hills of Ceylon tea, we ventured into the wilderness of Udawalawa for wildlife safari, and arrived at the beaches of Mirissa and the colonial port of Galle to embrace the Indian Ocean.  Before leaving Sri Lanka, we stopped by Colombo for a delicious crab dinner.  This trip was filled with lovely moments: joining Buddhist pilgrims at the 2300-year-old Bodhi Tree, hiking through Sir Thomas Lipton’s tea terraces, facing eyes-in-eye with elephants and leopard on safari jeep, spotting whales and dolphins in the open ocean, candlelight dining on the Mirissa Beach, not to mention devouring delicious curry and seafood, meeting the friendly and curious local people, and taking in the laid back atmosphere that we could always smell in the air.

1_NegomboOur journey embarked from the beaches of Negombo.

2_Ancient 1At Anuradhapura, we circled the 2300-year sacred Bodhi tree,

2_Ancient 2and visited several ancient Buddhist dagobas (stupas) where pilgrims burned incenses and offered lotus flowers.

2_Ancient 3At Sigiriya, we climbed up a rock opposite to Sigiriya Rock to watch the best ever sunset.

2_Ancient 4Visiting the Temple of the Tooth in Kandy offered us a chance to see the century-old rituals that once symbolized the political and religious power of the nation.

3_Hill 1At Kandy, we stayed at the magnificent Villa Rosa Guesthouse overlooking the Mahaweli River,

3_Hill 2and visited the famous Royal Botanical Garden to check out the large flying foxes.

3_Hill 3“The world’s most scenic train ride” took us up to the hills of tea plantations.

3_Hill 4In Haputale, we followed Lipton’s footsteps for a half day hike.

3_Hill 5In Ella, we were rewarded with the peaceful and lush green scenery.

4_Beach 1Onwards to Udawalawa where we had close encounters with Asian elephants.

4_Beach 2Reaching the south coast at Mirissa signified the final leg of our journey.

4_Beach 3Mirissa offered us moments of relaxation right by the Indian Ocean.

4_Beach 4The seaside resort town is also renowned as one of the world’s top spot for whale and dolphin watching.

4_Beach 5We enjoyed every moments by the sea at Mirissa and Galle before heading north to Colombo.